What is Glaucoma; its causes, symptoms and treatment

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that gradually damage the optic nerve, the bundle of nerve fibers connecting your eye to the brain. This damage is often caused by abnormally high pressure inside your eye, known as intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60.

Types of glaucoma

The two main types of glaucoma are:

  • Open-angle glaucoma: The most common type. The drainage angle in the eye, where fluid should flow out, remains open, but the microscopic drainage canals become partially blocked, causing the fluid to build up slowly and raise eye pressure.
  • Angle-closure glaucoma: Less common, but can be more severe. The drainage angle becomes completely blocked, usually by the iris bulging forward, causing a rapid rise in eye pressure. This is a medical emergency.

Causes of glaucoma

The exact causes of glaucoma aren’t fully understood, but several factors are involved:

  • High eye pressure: Increased pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure) due to the buildup of aqueous humor (fluid in your eye).
  • Age: People over 60 are at higher risk.
  • Ethnicity: People of African, Asian, and Hispanic descent are at increased risk.
  • Family history: Glaucoma can have a genetic component.
  • Medical conditions: Diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and sickle cell anemia can increase risk.
  • Eye injury: Serious eye injuries can lead to glaucoma.

Symptoms of glaucoma

Glaucoma can be a silent disease, especially in its early stages. Symptoms may not appear until significant damage has occurred. Here’s what to watch for:

  • Open-angle glaucoma:
  • Gradual loss of peripheral vision, usually in both eyes
  • Tunnel vision in the advanced stages
  • Angle-closure glaucoma:
  • Severe eye pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sudden blurred vision
  • Halos around lights
  • Red eyes

Prevention of glaucoma

While there’s no sure way to prevent glaucoma, these steps can help:

  • Regular eye exams: Early detection is key. Get dilated eye exams every 1-2 years, especially if you are at higher risk.
  • Manage medical conditions: Control diabetes, blood pressure, and other conditions that increase your risk.
  • Eye protection: Wear protective eyewear during activities that could cause eye injuries.
  • Healthy lifestyle: Exercise, a healthy diet, and not smoking may have a protective effect.

Treatment of glaucoma

Glaucoma cannot be cured, but treatment focuses on lowering eye pressure to prevent further damage. Treatment options include:

  • Eye drops: Medications can either reduce fluid production or help it drain better.
  • Laser surgery: Procedures like trabeculoplasty can help improve fluid drainage.
  • Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS): These procedures create alternative drainage pathways to reduce IOP.
  • Incisional surgery: Used when other treatments fail, traditional surgery creates a new drainage channel in the eye.

Important note: If you experience any symptoms of glaucoma, especially sudden blurry vision or eye pain, seek immediate medical attention from an eye doctor (ophthalmologist).

Vitamin A: An Overview.

vitamin A foods

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for various bodily functions, including maintaining healthy vision, supporting immune function, and promoting normal growth and development. It is a group of compounds that includes retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid.

Retinol is the most commonly known form of Vitamin A and is found in animal-based foods such as liver, eggs, and dairy products. It is also available in supplement form. Retinoids, such as retin-A, are derived from Vitamin A and are commonly used in skincare products to promote skin health.

Vitamin A plays a vital role in maintaining the health of the eyes, particularly in low-light conditions. It is also important for maintaining healthy skin, mucous membranes, and immune system function. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Sources of Vitamin A

Vitamin A can be obtained from both plant and animal sources. Here are some common sources of Vitamin A:

Animal sources: Liver, cod liver oil, egg yolks, milk, cheese, butter, and other dairy products.

Plant sources: Sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, spinach, kale, collard greens, broccoli, cantaloupe, apricots, mangos, and papayas.

Fortified foods: Some foods are fortified with Vitamin A, such as cereal, oatmeal, and other breakfast foods.

Supplements: Vitamin A supplements are available in the form of capsules, tablets, and liquid drops.

It is important to note that excessive intake of Vitamin A from supplements or certain foods can be toxic and cause adverse effects. The recommended daily intake for Vitamin A varies depending on age, sex, and other factors, and it is best to consult with a healthcare provider before taking Vitamin A supplements.

Health Benefits of Vitamin A

Vitamin A has several health benefits that are essential for the proper functioning of the body. Some of the key benefits include:

Promotes healthy vision: Vitamin A is important for maintaining healthy eyesight, particularly in low-light conditions. It helps the eyes adjust to changes in light and is necessary for the production of rhodopsin, a pigment in the retina that helps detect light.

Supports immune function: Vitamin A plays a vital role in maintaining a healthy immune system. It helps the body fight infections by stimulating the production of white blood cells that combat harmful pathogens.

Maintains healthy skin: Vitamin A is important for maintaining healthy skin, as it supports the production of skin cells and helps keep the skin moisturized. It is also used in topical skincare products to treat acne and other skin conditions.

Promotes growth and development: Vitamin A is essential for the proper growth and development of the body, including bone growth and reproductive health.

Reduces inflammation: Vitamin A has anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce inflammation throughout the body, which is important for maintaining overall health.

Overall, Vitamin A is essential for maintaining optimal health and should be consumed as part of a healthy and balanced diet. However, it is important to consume it in moderation, as excessive intake of Vitamin A can be toxic and lead to adverse effects.

GT Bank USSD Code and how to Use it.

The USSD code for Guaranty Trust Bank (GT Bank) is *737#. To Use it, dial the code using your mobile phone. It works with the Phone number registered with your account with the bank. With this code you can perform almost all banking operations as you would with your ATM card and internet banking.

Some banking operations you can do with *737# includes;

check account balance

transfer funds

pay utility bills

open bank account

obtain loans

and much more.

Why keep a lot of cash at hand when you have a bank account

Hand held cash

The revolution in the Telecommunications industry have greatly improved the way banks operate. Gone are the days when you have to wait hours at the bank to send and receive payments. You can easily make payments using your debit/ credit cards and your mobile phone. Most business merchants have upgraded their system to receive payments electronically. The banks keep on improving their cashless policy schemes. So if you still keep a lot of cash at hand, here are reasons why you should not do so.

High risk: The risk of keeping lot of cash at hand is much higher than when kept at the bank as it could get lost or stolen.

Paying Utility Bills:  It is easier to pay utility bills by instructing your bank to debit your account electronically than going through the hassles of paying in cash.

Obtaining Loan or Mortgage: To obtain a loan or mortgage, you need a bank account to ensure steady automatic payments when due.

Handling large Payments: It is usually safer to handle large payment transactions electronically as the receiver won’t be able to deny in whole or part that payment was made.

Web Transactions:  when doing web transactions on the internet, it is impossible to use cash in hand, you will have to make use of your bank account to transfer and receive payment electronically.

You do need cash at hand, but carrying a lot of it around is unsafe and unnecessary.

Diamond Banking Mobile Banking Code and how to use it.


Diamond bank mobile banking code is *426#.  It can be used together with your phone number to transfer funds, check balance, buy airtime, change pin and much more. Your phone number must be the one registered with your bank account with Diamond bank. To use this code you must have opened a bank account with them. This type of mobile banking do not need internet to function; just your mobile phone number.

How to use Diamond bank mobile bank code

To register/activate *426#. For your account, follow these steps;

  1. Dial *426# with your registered phone number with the bank.
  2. Enter the last six numbers of your ATM card.
  3. Enter your diamond bank account number.
  4. Create a 4 digit pin to use for your mobile bank transactions.

To change pin

  1. Dial *426*0#.
  2. Enter the last six numbers of your ATM card & account number.
  3. At the Prompt, change PIN

To check account balance

  1. Dial *426*00#
  2. Select account number
  3. Receive account balance through sms.

To request for debit card

  1. Dial *426#
  2. Selected card request.
  3. Select account number.
  4. Selected /confirm pickup location.
  5. Authenticate transaction with your PIN.

To transfer funds to Diamond bank account or other bank account

  1. Dial *426*AMOUNT*NUBAN Account Number# (e.g.: *426*5000*3204516745#).
  2. Confirm transaction with your PIN.

To buy airtime:

(Load phone number registered with bank)

  1. Dial *426*Amount# (e.g.: *426*1000#)

(Load other phone numbers)

  1. dial *426*Amount*Phone Number#. (e.g. *426*2000*08054878626)

Requirements for Opening a Current Account with Diamond bank.

(Requirements also similar to other Nigerian Banks)

What is Current Account?

A current account is an account that allows you to deposit or receive payments using cheques. It is an account that is best suited for regular transactions.

What you need to open a current account with diamond bank

  1. ₦5000 (opening balance).
  2. Completed application form, you can download it HERE.
  3. 2 completed reference forms. (Must be current account holders).
  4. 2 signature specimen cards.
  5. Valid identification i.e voters card, international passport, driver’s license.
  6. 2 passport photo. (recent)
  7. Proof of address i.e. electricity bill, tenancy agreement.

See opening of savings account 

See opening of domiciliary account

Benefits of opening a current account with diamond bank

  1. Zero operating balance.
  2. No monthly fees.