Some basic terminologies in Geography Part 1

Easting and Northings  

With reference to a point, the line or axes running from north to south are known as Eastings. Eastings indicate the distance east of the referenced point. Similarly, the line running from east to west are known as Northings because they indicate the distance north of the referenced point.

Contour lines

contour lines
contour lines

Contour lines are imaginary lines joining places of equal height above mean sea level. Contour lines make it possible to read areas of hills, valleys and level land on a map.

Contour lines that are very close together on a map indicate very steep slope. When these lines are far apart on a map, it indicate gentle slope. The absence of contour lines on the map indicate very flat land.

Plateau

Plateau

The top of a plateau is flat, characterized by very few contours while the sides are often steep which is characterized by contours close together.

Bench marks

Bench marks are basically fixed heights above mean sea level. They are indicated by the sign

    Bench marks are chiseled into stonework or walls of buildings.

Photographic maps

Photographic map

There are two types of photographic maps, Vertical; which is picture taken from an airplane and looking down vertically (90 degrees) and Oblique; taken at any position except vertical.

Scales

Scales can be represented in two ways on maps;

  1. As a statement scale such as ½ inch to 1 mile or
  2. Representative fraction (R.F), for example, 1: 253440, which means 1 inch to 253440 inches.  In R.F, the scale unit and what it represents are the same.

Gradient

Gradient

Gradient is the means of defining the slope of a land. It is calculated by measuring the horizontal distance between two points and dividing by vertical difference in height between the 2 points.

Direction

Can be defined as angular bearing measured from north in a clockwise direction.

Human geography

This is defined as the activity of man on the landscape for building settlement, farming, making routes, etc. to achieve the best results, man is usually guided by natural conditions of land and terrain.

How to Make Millet Starch at Home

Millet . two types of grains shown
Millet

Millet starch is produced from millet. It is a very cheap good food for children, particularly toddlers. You can make it at home if you have a blender.

Items you need prepare millet starch;

  1. Millet ( at least 1kg)
  2. Blender
  3. Clean buckets, bowls or container. (large enough to store and soak the millet grains)
  4. Water
  5. Sieving cloth bag

Processing;

  1. Soak the millet with water inside a container for about 4 days. This is to soften the grains and make it easier to blend.
  2. Blend the millet grains. Using water, blend grains into a smooth paste as much as possible.
  3. Get ready clean water in a bucket or container up to half its capacity, and while holding the sieving cloth bag inside the bucket, pour the blended millet paste into it.
  4. You can use your left hand to seal the top of the sieve bag, and with the filled bottom part of the bag in water, wash and squeeze out the starch content into the water.
  5. Remove the shaft residue in the sieve bag.

You should sieve the blended millet paste little by little. You can even blend and then sieve, and repeat process until all millet grains is processed.

  • Wait a day for the starch to settle
  • Your millet starch is ready.
millet starch

How to make Palm Kernel Seed Oil at home

Palm kernel seed oil
Palm Kernel Seed Oil

Items you will need to make palm kernel seed oil

  1. Palm kernel seeds. To extract substantial quantity you will need up to 1 congo or seeds weighting about 1.5kg
  2. An old cooking pot
  3. A metal cooking spoon for stirring
  4. A cooking device, for example a camp gas or an electric cooker

Caution

This process generates a lot of white smoke, its safest doing this out doors at the backyard of your home.

Processing of palm seed oil

  1. The first step is to crush the palm kernel shells to remove the seeds. To extract a substantial amount of oil you will need up to 1.5kg of seeds.
  2. Put the seeds into a clean dry cooking pot and place on your activated cooking device. The process will generate a lot of smoke so put on your nose marks if necessary.
  3. Start stirring the seeds with a metal spoon. This is to distribute the cooking heat evenly across the seeds. Stirring should be done intermittently say every 30sec to 1min intervals.
  4. Keep stirring intermittently until. Smoke begin to form. This indicates oil is beginning to extract from the heated seeds.
  5. Keep on stirring, After substantial amount of oil is extracted you can pour into a metal bowl
  6. Continue the previous process until all oil in the seeds is extracted.
  7. When all oil in the seeds have been extracted the seed will look burnt inside out
  8. Finally let the oil cool down and pour into a clean plastic Bottle.
  9. You can extract over 250ml of oil from 1.5kg of seeds.