Driving is a serious business; any mistakes could result in serious injury or even death. Good driving is a skill, you learn the first part at driving school and the other part during your driving experience.
your car is in perfect condition before driving, open the bonnet, check the
level of engine oil on dipstick and confirm it is ok, check brake fluid level
and also confirm it is ok, if either engine or brake oil is inadequate, you
must refill before you start or move your car. Open the radiator and fill up
with water if necessary, ensure no leakage of oil under the vehicle, check the
tires, make sure they have adequate pressure and ensure that the nuts are tight.
you should check before driving but not critical, include head lambs, brake
lights traffic turning signals and horn; if any is malfunctioning, it should be
repaired at your earliest convenience. If road safety officials stop your car
and realizes any of these aren’t working, you may be fined
It is a good
practice to put on your seat belt and put your phone on hands free mode before
driving. Don’t drive under the influence or if you are sick.
should be part and parcel of your daily driving habit. Always drive at safe
speeds and distance from the vehicle in front of you, be patient and use your
turning signals when negotiating a turn. Use the rear and side view mirrors to
see what is around you. Anticipate mistakes that co- drivers and pedestrians
can make in advance and take precautionary steps to avoid them.
pedestrians with respect when driving, on a road with high population of
people, drive slowly and use the horn. Remember a hit of your car on a
pedestrian can result in you spending a lot of money on treatment, manslaughter
charges or jail term.
at night, or very dusty or foggy weather always use the headlamps and fog
lights when necessary. To reduce glare when driving at night use the head lamps
at low beam. Use high beam and fog lights during heavy rains.
your car in a way it doesn’t obstruct traffic, don’t park in areas where your
car is in danger of being hit. Engage the hand brakes when parking to prevent
the car from moving. When bringing the car to a stop on a slope; in addition to
engaging the hand brake put the gear in one or reverse or parking gear if your
car uses automatic transmission.
As a driver and/or car owner, you may sometimes find it necessary to go read your car manual to resolve some issue or get some clarification, In the process you may notice some abbreviations used in the car manual that you don’t understand, although the meaning are usually somewhere in the manual, you may not have the patience to search the page. Sometimes it may be an abbreviation flashing up on your dashboard or written somewhere on the body of your car. Here are some commonly used abbreviations in car manuals /dashboards and their meanings.
Globacom limited (Glo) is a Nigerian telecommunications
company founded in 2003 by Mike Adenuga .
Glo has over 45 million Subscribers making it the second largest telecommunications network operator in Nigeria.
Glo Data Plans.
Glo offers a variety of affordable data plans on their 4G LTE network, to get started dial *777# and follow prompts. Check out Glo data plans for more details.
They also offer dedicated bandwidth service for the following internet speeds; 512kbs, 2Mbps and 4Mbps. currently their router costs ₦ 36, 000 (thirty six thousand naira) currently, subscription to this category of internet service is on the high side.
Glo voice/sms plans.
There are many affordable voice and sms plans to choose from including the popular 11k/s plan ( for Glo to Glo customers), on the same plan you get 15k/s to other Nigerian networks and 20k/s for international calls. Dial *211# to subscribe. For more information check out Glo voice/sms plans.
There is also the Glo
Jollific8 plan where you receive 8 times the value of your recharge. This plan
is available only on newly activated Sims by default. By dialing *123*PIN# on
your Glo enabled phone you get 8 times the value of your recharge plus free
data bonus. To check voice and data balance dial *122# and *606# respectively.
Other voice/sms plans include; infinito, G-BAM, esay share and international calling. For more information check out Glo voice/sms plans.
Glo Fixed telephone
and broadband internet lines.
currently installing optical fiber cable network across Nigeria and some
countries in Africa with the aim of providing state of the art voice calling, dedicated
bandwidth high-speed internet and video. Wired internet has always been known
to be more reliable than wireless internet, and Globacom is on its way to
becoming the first telecommunications company to provide this service for
Nigeria and Africa.
Toyota Yaris has always known to be a fuel efficient car; Toyota Yaris 2019 comes with a combined fuel efficiency rating of 34 mpg, has a cute stylish elegant design that resembles the Toyota corolla. It boosts a direct injection 1.5 liters 4 cylinder engine, with a lot of power, Available in 3 models; L, LE and XLE, the L and LE models come with a 6 speed intelligent manual transmission, while the XLE model come in 6 speed automatic transmission. Starting at $15,600, you too can own a Toyota Yaris 2019 sedan.
Toyota Yaris 2019 Exterior features
Fog lights. (LE and XLE models)
Halogen headlights (L and LE models), the XLE
model comes with Automatic LED headlights.
Sporty front fascia with black mesh pattern
Colour key power outside mirrors (L model) ,
powered outside mirrors with LED turn signal indicators (LE and XLE ) models.
Rear spoilers ( LE and XLE) models.
Dark grey alloy wheels (LE and XLE) models
Rain sensing windshield wipers. (XLE) model
Integrated FM/AM antenna
Toyota Yaris 2019 interior features
Air conditioning with dust filters; (L and LE)
models, XLE model comes with automatic climate control.
Fabric trimmed seats; (L and LE) models, XLE
model come with Leather trimmed car seats.
Sport driving mode for XLE model.
Steering wheels with audio control buttons; (L
and LE) models, steering wheels comes with audio and phone controls for XLE
All models comes with speedometer, tachometer,
cruise control, trip meter, outside temperature and warning messages
Power door locks; all models.
Remote keyless entry and push button start.
Power windows, rear window defogger, day/night
rear view mirrors, storage compartments, digital clock among others.
7 touch screen display, FM/Am radio, six
speakers, wireless hands free phone
receiver and music streaming with Bluetooth
Toyota Yaris 2019 safety features
All Toyota Yaris 2019 models come equipped with low speed
pre collision system, traction control system, brake assist, brake override system,
antilock brake system, 6 airbags for front , side and back, enhanced seat belts,
child protector rear door locks, tire pressure monitor, first aid kit and
Toyota Yaris 2019 engine specs and performance
All Yaris 2019 models come with 1.5 liter 4 cylinder, 106hp
engine. Ultra low emission, front wheel drive, enhanced suspension system for smoother
driving, electric power steering, turning circle diameter and minimum turning
radius of 32.2 and 16.1 ft. respectively.
Toyota Yaris 2019 dimension/ weight/capacity
Overall height, width and length; 1.49m, 1.69m and 4.35m respectively. Ground clearance; 0.14m and seating capacity of 5. Curb weight of the L LE and XLE models are 1081.8kg, 1089.1kg and 1125.8kg respectively. Fuel tank capacity for the three models; 43.9 liters
Simply supported design means you are designing reinforced
concrete structure span by span. This type of design assumes that there is no
transfer of moments between spans. For instance, in the design of a reinforced
concrete frame structure consisting of 4 spans, using simply supported design
method, you design each span separately.
The bending moment diagram for a reinforced concrete frame structure shown below consisting of 4 spans and designed using the simply supported method would look like this;
You should always use the ultimate load combination of (1.4gk + 1.6qk) in calculating design loading during analysis. Note that gk refers to dead load , while qk refers to live load.
Simply supported design is hand calculation friendly, you
only need a scientific calculator to help you.
Simply supported design is a conservative type of design and
in some cases may not produce an economic design.
Continuous design means you are analyzing and then designing
structure as a whole. Since a reinforced concrete structure consist of slab,
beams and columns, it means you are analyzing all together.
In continuous analysis and design, it is assumed that there is transfer of moments between spans or structural elements. Typical bending moment diagram for a structure consisting of 4 spans and designed as continuous would look like this;
Also in continuous analysis/ design, using only the ultimate
load combination of 1.4gk +1.6qk sometimes do not give the result which can be
described as worst case, various load combinations of dead, live and wind loads
(where appropriate) need to be applied on the structure to determine the worst
possible case under which the structure is safe.
While it is possible to analyze a structure as a whole using
moment distribution, manually or by hand calculation, it is not practicable
because it is tedious. Structural engineers who still design manually often
divide the whole structure into sections consisting of 3 to 5 spans , then
analyze and design each section separately until the whole structure is
covered, and with the aid of structural analysis programs, the process has been
The use of computer in structural analysis and design cannot be over emphasized, computer can implement the use of moment distribution or finite element method to analyze and design a whole structure in minutes.