Roads; an Explanation

A Road is a smooth path carved out on land for easy movement of people, goods and vehicles from one place to another. These days a road would usually mean an established pathway for the easy movement of vehicles or other form of locomotives from one place to another.

Road may be divided into four types

  1. Private road
  2. 2 lane road
  3. Dual carriage ways
  4. Express way

Private road

Private road

This means for example, the drive way to your house. Road managed by local community or estate. A private road can be individually or organizationally owned and maintained.

2 lane Road

2 lane road

Two lane roads are single carriageways. Traffic flows in opposite direction on each lane. Two lane roads are common in rural and urban areas. Speed limit on this type of road is low because it has too many access points.

Dual carriageways

Dual carriageway

Dual carriage way is a type of roadway in traffic in opposite directions is separated by a central reservation or barrier. In each traffic direction, the road may consist of multiple lanes. Dual carriage  ways are designed to very high standards so it can double as a free or motorway.



Express ways are roads built for speed. To encourage this, there is controlled and limited access into these types of roads. They are built to the highest of standards. Expressways are dual carriage ways clearly separated by central reservation or barrier.

Expressways have the highest acceptable speed limits.

Basic Information about Google AdSense

Google Adsense is a way to make money online. If you own a website, blog or YouTube channel with lots of rich original content, Adsense places ads alongside your content and when visitors click on them, you make money. 

With a Google adsense account, relevant adverts are placed on your website. You can view the results of click activity on the ads. At the end of the month, money made from click activity is summed up and payment is processed through your adsense account.

Requirement for opening an AdSense account.

  1. A Google account. If you already have a Gmail account then you have a Google account. 
  2. A website , blog or YouTube channel you own with lots of good quality original content.

Process of opening a AdSense account

So with a Gmail account and your own website, you can sign up for an Adsense account. After signing up, Google then checks your linked website for adherence to Google Adsense policies. If your website meets the requirements, you will be accepted into the Adsense program. At this stage Google placed ads on your website. When you reach a balance of 10 dollars in your Adsense account, Google verifies your address by sending  a PIN to your physical address. Which is the address you filled in your Adsense account application. When you successfully enter the PIN sent in the right portion of your Adsense account , your account will be fully activated and ready to receive payments..

Adsense payment process

The minimum threshold for payment is 100 dollars. When you meet this threshold at the end of a particular month, Google sends you payment anytime from the 21st day of the next month.

How you receive Google AdSense payments

Google sends your payments by wire transfer to your bank account. Which is the same account you filled in your Adsense account. You can also change your bank account within your Adsense account as the case may be.

Types of Videos You can’t Monetize on YouTube

YouTube is very clear about the types of videos you can’t monetize on their platform. Monetization means Google ads can show while someone is watching your video. If he or she clicks on the advert, you are paid. Here are some types of videos you can’t monetize;


Nudity of any degree in part or all of your video will make the video not eligible to make money. Sexually provocative scenes also fall into this class. 


Posting other peoples original video content in whole or part on your channel makes the video not monetizable.. The best way to avoid copyright issues is to make sure you own all the rights in the video you create. However in some cases, YouTube still allows you to monetize other peoples content in your video provided you create your own original commentary. 


Video showing violent or gory scenes, killing of human beings or animals, firearms, etc. is not eligible for monetization.

Hate speech

Videos promoting hate speech,religious intolerance, racism are not eligible for monetization on YouTube.

Nonsensical content

Videos showing content with no educational value or that makes no sense can’t be monetized.

PowerPoint videos

Powerpoint videos refers to videos containing only a series of pictures with little or no voice narrative. These types of videos are difficult to monetize.

Robotic voice

You can monetize a video containing robotic or computerised voice provided you created the write up  for the robotic voice to use. However, using a robotic voice to read from pages of newspapers or text books which you didn’t create  can’t be monetized.


Videos showing killing,torturing, mating, cutting open of animals can’t be monetized.


Videos showing children subjected to inhuman treatment, or abuse won’t be monetized.

For more on what videos can’t be monetized you can read YouTube Monetization policies

How to Make Money on YouTube

People are making money by posting videos on YouTube; that’s a fact. In the earlier days, once you create your YouTube channel and start posting videos, you can start making money right away.

But things aren’t that easy these days. For your channel to get monetized, it must have at least 1000 subscribers and 4000 hours watch time in the last 365 days.

In addition, your channel and videos must comply with all YouTube monetization guidelines.

What you will need for YouTube monetization

1.Gmail account

2. Adsense account

3. YouTube channel

Gmail account: to open an AdSense or YouTube account, you will need gmail.

Adsense account: AdSense is the platform through which your YouTube earnings and payments are processed. To create an adsense account you will need either your own website, youtube or blogger account where google can place adverts. Your website, youtube or blogger account must have sufficient original content for a successful application.

YouTube channel: you will need to have created and run a youtube channel by posting original legitimate videos prior to monetization.

To know more about types of videos you can monetize, see youtube monetization policies.

Some basic terminologies in Geography Part 1

Easting and Northings  

With reference to a point, the line or axes running from north to south are known as Eastings. Eastings indicate the distance east of the referenced point. Similarly, the line running from east to west are known as Northings because they indicate the distance north of the referenced point.

Contour lines

contour lines
contour lines

Contour lines are imaginary lines joining places of equal height above mean sea level. Contour lines make it possible to read areas of hills, valleys and level land on a map.

Contour lines that are very close together on a map indicate very steep slope. When these lines are far apart on a map, it indicate gentle slope. The absence of contour lines on the map indicate very flat land.



The top of a plateau is flat, characterized by very few contours while the sides are often steep which is characterized by contours close together.

Bench marks

Bench marks are basically fixed heights above mean sea level. They are indicated by the sign

    Bench marks are chiseled into stonework or walls of buildings.

Photographic maps

Photographic map

There are two types of photographic maps, Vertical; which is picture taken from an airplane and looking down vertically (90 degrees) and Oblique; taken at any position except vertical.


Scales can be represented in two ways on maps;

  1. As a statement scale such as ½ inch to 1 mile or
  2. Representative fraction (R.F), for example, 1: 253440, which means 1 inch to 253440 inches.  In R.F, the scale unit and what it represents are the same.



Gradient is the means of defining the slope of a land. It is calculated by measuring the horizontal distance between two points and dividing by vertical difference in height between the 2 points.


Can be defined as angular bearing measured from north in a clockwise direction.

Human geography

This is defined as the activity of man on the landscape for building settlement, farming, making routes, etc. to achieve the best results, man is usually guided by natural conditions of land and terrain.


Coronavirus is a type of virus that causes diseases in animals. In humas it attacks the respiratory system. But letal forms of the disease have developed lately including SARS; Severe acute respiratory syndrome,
MERS; Middle east respiratory syndrome, and currently, COVID- 19; Severe acute respiratory disease, now renamed coronavirus disease 2019.

Coronavirus disease 2019

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest from of the disease to hit the world. It is spreading fast.The disease is known to have been transfered from animals to man.There is presently no drugs to treat or prevent COVID-19 infections.

Symptoms of COVID-19

Symptoms generally start with sneezing, coughing and running nose, and then later complicates to shortness of breadth, pheomonia, kidney failure, fever, diarrhea, decrease of white blood cells, and eventually, death.

How COVID-19 is spread

The disease is spread by small droplets from infected people when they breathe, cough or sneeze.It is important that an infected person covers his or her mouth when coughing or sneezing and doesn’t come in close contact with people to prevent the spread of the disease.

Precautionary measures

WHO has released guidelines to prevent spread of infection which incudes;

  • Covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze,
  • Washing your hands thoroughly especially when you have cold symptoms or in close contact with an infected person.
  • Have meat and eggs well cooked.
  • Not moving close to and infected person.

Incubation period and treatment of COVID-19

The incubation period of the disease is said to be between 2 to 14 days. Some cases of up to 24 days have also been reported. Fatality rate is less than 5% of the number of people infected.For many infected, the disease resolves on its own with the aid of some strong antibiotics, however there is no known drug that can directly treat or prevent the infection at this time.