Some basic terminologies in Geography Part 1

Easting and Northings  

With reference to a point, the line or axes running from north to south are known as Eastings. Eastings indicate the distance east of the referenced point. Similarly, the line running from east to west are known as Northings because they indicate the distance north of the referenced point.

Contour lines

contour lines
contour lines

Contour lines are imaginary lines joining places of equal height above mean sea level. Contour lines make it possible to read areas of hills, valleys and level land on a map.

Contour lines that are very close together on a map indicate very steep slope. When these lines are far apart on a map, it indicate gentle slope. The absence of contour lines on the map indicate very flat land.



The top of a plateau is flat, characterized by very few contours while the sides are often steep which is characterized by contours close together.

Bench marks

Bench marks are basically fixed heights above mean sea level. They are indicated by the sign

    Bench marks are chiseled into stonework or walls of buildings.

Photographic maps

Photographic map

There are two types of photographic maps, Vertical; which is picture taken from an airplane and looking down vertically (90 degrees) and Oblique; taken at any position except vertical.


Scales can be represented in two ways on maps;

  1. As a statement scale such as ½ inch to 1 mile or
  2. Representative fraction (R.F), for example, 1: 253440, which means 1 inch to 253440 inches.  In R.F, the scale unit and what it represents are the same.



Gradient is the means of defining the slope of a land. It is calculated by measuring the horizontal distance between two points and dividing by vertical difference in height between the 2 points.


Can be defined as angular bearing measured from north in a clockwise direction.

Human geography

This is defined as the activity of man on the landscape for building settlement, farming, making routes, etc. to achieve the best results, man is usually guided by natural conditions of land and terrain.

How to take a screenshot of information contained on your laptop/desktop screen using snipping tool.

Snipping tool is a software created by Microsoft to take screenshots of what is visible on your laptop screen. It’s been available for a while.

The software comes bundled with windows 10 operating system.

For more information, you can Google up “snipping tool” and get more information about the software on Microsoft support website.

Now on how to use it;

Type “snipping tool” on the operating system search bar to bring up the software, then click to activate.

Make visible on your laptop screen, information you want to capture.

Bring up snipping tool if necessary, then under mode, select “full screen snip”, immediately a screenshot of the whole laptop screen is captured. You have various editing options before finally saving the file.

To take screenshot of a part of what is shown on your laptop screen; under “mode”, selected “rectangular snip” then select the area you want to save.

To watch video on how to use this tool click this youtube link.

How to reduce or Increase Video Playback quality in NETFLIX.

NETFLIX automatically controls video playback quality based on your internet speed.

However, let’s say you always want the best video quality, or, you want to consume less data by reducing video quality playback, here’s how.

Sign in to your Netflix account.

Next, click on your profile icon, then, Account.

Scroll down until you find playback settings.

Click, playback settings and choose your preferred playback video quality.

Remember to save your settings.

You can watch video on how to control video playback quality in NETFLIX by clicking the link below.