Table Salt

Table salt

What is table salt

Table salt is a type of salt that is commonly used as a seasoning for food. It is made up of sodium chloride (NaCl), a mineral compound that is essential to many bodily functions. Table salt is usually a fine-grained, white crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. It is often used in cooking and baking to enhance the flavor of foods, and is also used as a preservative to extend the shelf life of some foods. In some countries, table salt is also fortified with iodine, a nutrient that is important for thyroid health. While table salt is an important part of many cuisines around the world, it is also important to consume it in moderation, as excessive intake of salt has been linked to health problems such as high blood pressure and heart disease.

How table salt is produced

Table salt is produced through a process known as solar evaporation, which involves the following steps:

Saltwater is collected from saltwater sources such as oceans, seas, or salt lakes. This water is typically pumped into large shallow ponds called salt pans, where it is left to evaporate naturally.

As the water evaporates, the salt concentration increases, and eventually, the water becomes saturated with salt. At this point, the salt begins to crystallize and settle at the bottom of the salt pans.

Once enough salt has accumulated at the bottom of the pans, it is harvested using large machines and transported to processing facilities.

At the processing facility, the salt is washed and purified to remove impurities such as dirt, clay, and other minerals.

The salt is then dried and crushed into smaller particles, and may be further processed to create different varieties of salt such as iodized salt, sea salt, or kosher salt.

Finally, the salt is packaged and distributed for use in homes, restaurants, and food processing industries.

Overall, the production of table salt is a relatively simple process that relies on natural evaporation and harvesting techniques. However, advances in technology and processing methods have allowed for greater efficiency and quality control in the production of table salt.

How to make Bread at home

Homemade bread

Making bread at home is a satisfying and enjoyable activity that can also save you money. Here’s a basic recipe for homemade bread:


3 cups of all-purpose flour

1 teaspoon of salt

1 tablespoon of active dry yeast

1 tablespoon of sugar

1 and 1/4 cups of warm water

2 tablespoons of olive oil


  1. In a large mixing bowl, combine the flour and salt.
  1. In a separate bowl, mix together the yeast, sugar, and warm water. Let the mixture sit for about 5 minutes until the yeast becomes frothy.
  1. Add the yeast mixture to the flour mixture and stir until a dough forms.
  1. Turn the dough out onto a floured surface and knead it for about 10 minutes, until it becomes smooth and elastic.
  1. Place the dough in a greased bowl and cover it with a clean towel. Let it rise in a warm place for about 1 hour, or until it has doubled in size.
  1. Preheat your oven to 375°F.
  1. Punch down the dough and shape it into a loaf or rolls.
  1. Place the dough on a baking sheet and brush the top with olive oil.
  1. Bake for 30-35 minutes, or until the bread is golden brown and sounds hollow when tapped on the bottom.
  1. Let the bread cool for a few minutes before slicing and serving.
  1. Enjoy your homemade bread!

Difference between Full Cream milk and Filled milk

Full Cream Milk and Filled Milk

Full cream milk is milk that contains all of the natural fat that is found in milk, typically around 3.5% fat content. It is also referred to as whole milk or regular milk. Full cream milk is often preferred for its richer taste and creamier texture, and is commonly used in cooking and baking.

Filled milk, on the other hand, is a type of milk that has been altered by removing the natural fat and replacing it with vegetable oil or other non-dairy fats. It typically has a lower fat content than full cream milk, usually around 1-2% fat content. Filled milk is commonly used as a substitute for regular milk in situations where dairy products are not readily available or for individuals who are lactose intolerant or allergic to milk.

In terms of taste and texture, filled milk may be less creamy than full cream milk, and some people may notice a slightly different taste due to the added vegetable oils. However, it is a suitable alternative for those who cannot consume dairy products or prefer a lower-fat option.

Health benefit of full cream milk

Full cream milk, also known as whole milk, is a good source of several essential nutrients that provide numerous health benefits. Here are some of the potential health benefits of consuming full cream milk:

Good source of calcium: Full cream milk is a good source of calcium, which is important for bone health and development.

Protein: Full cream milk is a good source of protein, which is essential for building and repairing muscle tissue.

Vitamin D: Full cream milk is fortified with vitamin D, which helps the body absorb calcium and also plays a role in immune function.

Provides energy: Full cream milk is a good source of carbohydrates, which provides energy to the body.

May help with weight management: Studies have suggested that consuming full cream milk may help with weight management by reducing hunger and increasing feelings of fullness.

May reduce the risk of certain diseases: Some studies have linked full cream milk consumption to a reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

It is important to note that while full cream milk has potential health benefits, it is also high in saturated fat and calories. Therefore, it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

Health benefit of filled milk

Filled milk is a type of milk that has been altered by removing the natural fat and replacing it with vegetable oil or other non-dairy fats. While filled milk may not provide the same nutrients as full cream milk, it still has some potential health benefits:

Low in saturated fat: Filled milk is low in saturated fat, which can be beneficial for heart health. High intake of saturated fat has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease.

Lactose-free: Filled milk is a suitable alternative for individuals who are lactose intolerant or allergic to milk.

Fortified with vitamins and minerals: Filled milk is often fortified with vitamins and minerals, such as calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12, which are important for bone health, immune function, and energy metabolism.

Lower in calories: Filled milk is typically lower in calories than full cream milk, which may be beneficial for individuals who are trying to manage their weight.

Shelf-stable: Filled milk can be stored at room temperature for a longer period of time compared to regular milk, which makes it a convenient option for individuals who don’t have access to refrigeration.

It is important to note that while filled milk may have some potential health benefits, it is still a processed food and may contain added sugars and other ingredients that are not beneficial for health. Therefore, it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

How Chocolate Power is made

Chocolate Powder

Chocolate powder

Chocolate powder, also known as cocoa powder, is a dry powder made from cocoa beans that have been fermented, roasted, and ground into a fine powder. The powder is commonly used as an ingredient in baking and cooking, as well as for making hot chocolate and chocolate milk.

Chocolate powder can be either natural or Dutch-processed (alkalized), depending on how it is processed. Natural cocoa powder is made by grinding roasted cocoa beans into a powder, while Dutch-processed cocoa powder is treated with an alkalizing agent to neutralize the natural acidity of the cocoa.

Chocolate powder is a rich source of flavonoids, which are antioxidants that have been shown to have several health benefits, including improved heart health and reduced inflammation. However, it’s important to note that many chocolate powders contain added sugars and other ingredients that can reduce their nutritional value, so it’s important to read labels and choose high-quality, minimally processed products.

How cocoa is processed to make chocolate powder

Cocoa beans are processed to make chocolate powder through several steps, including fermentation, drying, roasting, grinding, and pressing. Here is a brief overview of the cocoa powder production process:

Fermentation: Freshly harvested cocoa beans are placed in large containers and left to ferment for several days. This process helps to remove the pulp surrounding the beans and develop the flavor of the cocoa.

Drying: The fermented beans are then spread out on trays or mats to dry in the sun or in a drying chamber. This process helps to reduce the moisture content of the beans and prevent them from spoiling.

Roasting: Once the beans are dried, they are roasted to bring out their characteristic flavor and aroma. The roasting time and temperature can vary depending on the desired flavor and color of the final product.

Grinding: The roasted cocoa beans are then ground into a paste called cocoa liquor or chocolate liquor. This paste is made up of cocoa solids and cocoa butter.

Pressing: The cocoa liquor is then pressed to separate the cocoa solids from the cocoa butter. The solids are then ground into a fine powder, which is the chocolate powder or cocoa powder.

The cocoa powder can be further processed into chocolate by adding sugar, milk powder, and other ingredients, as well as by conching and tempering to develop the desired texture and flavor.

Health benefits of chocolate powder

Chocolate powder, also known as cocoa powder, has been found to have several potential health benefits, although it’s important to note that many commercially available chocolate powders may contain added sugars and other ingredients that can reduce their nutritional value. Here are some of the potential health benefits of chocolate powder:

Rich in antioxidants: Chocolate powder is a rich source of flavonoids, which are antioxidants that can help protect the body against oxidative stress and inflammation.

Improved heart health: Studies have found that consuming chocolate powder or dark chocolate may help improve cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure, improving blood flow, and reducing inflammation.

Improved brain function: The flavonoids in chocolate powder may also have a positive effect on brain function, including improved cognitive performance and memory.

Reduced risk of diabetes: Some research has suggested that regular consumption of chocolate powder or dark chocolate may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Reduced stress and anxiety: Chocolate powder contains several compounds that can help improve mood and reduce stress and anxiety, including serotonin, phenylethylamine, and theobromine.

It’s worth noting that many of these potential health benefits are associated with dark chocolate or chocolate powder with a high percentage of cocoa solids, and that chocolate powders with added sugars and other ingredients may not provide the same benefits. As with any food or supplement, it’s important to consume chocolate powder in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

How to cook Nigerian Jollof Rice

Nigerian Jollof rice is a popular West African dish that is known for its flavorful blend of rice, tomatoes, onions, and spices.

Here’s a recipe for cooking Nigerian Jollof rice:

Nigerian Jollof Rice


3 cups of rice

2 cans of tomato paste

1 red onion

1 green bell pepper

2 red bell peppers

2 habanero peppers (optional)

2 cups of chicken stock

1 tablespoon of curry powder

1 tablespoon of thyme

1 tablespoon of ginger powder

1 tablespoon of garlic powder

2 bay leaves

1 teaspoon of smoked paprika

Salt and pepper to taste

1/4 cup of vegetable oil


  1. Rinse the rice and set it aside.

2. Blend the red onion, red and green bell peppers, and habanero peppers (if using) in a blender until smooth.

3. Heat the vegetable oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add the blended pepper mixture and fry for 5-7 minutes, stirring frequently.

4. Add the tomato paste, curry powder, thyme, ginger powder, garlic powder, smoked paprika, bay leaves, salt, and pepper to the pot. Stir well and cook for an additional 5-7 minutes.

5. Add the chicken stock to the pot and stir. Allow the mixture to come to a boil.

6. Add the rice to the pot and stir well. Reduce the heat to low, cover the pot, and let it simmer for about 25-30 minutes or until the rice is cooked and the liquid is absorbed.

7. Fluff the rice with a fork and serve hot.

Nigerian Jollof rice is often served with chicken, beef, or fish, and can also be accompanied by fried plantains, or salad. Enjoy!

Scotch Bonnets: Characteristics and Uses

Scotch bonnets

Scotch bonnets are a type of very hot chili peppers common in west Africa and the caribbean. They have a heat rating of between 100000 – 400000 scoville units.

Scotch bonnets also have their completely sweet varieties too known as cachucha peppers. In Yoruba land in west Africa, Scotch bonnet is known as atarodo. 

Fresh ripe scotch bonnets came in red, green, yellow, orange peach and even chocolate brown varieties.

Uses of Scotch bonnets

Scotch bonnets is a major ingredient used in the preparation of condiments for flavouring food.

They  are used to spice many dishes worldwide.Used to cook hot sauces and pepper stews. Also used in the flavouring of roasted and fried meat.

Also read; Red Bell Peppers (Tatashe)

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