EURO 2020: Italy and Wales Qualify for Round of 16.

Italy and Wales are the first teams to qualify for the second round in the ongoing EURO 2020 Championship. They qualified automatically from group A after coming 1st and 2nd respectively. Italy laid down their title credentials after wining all there 3 matches in the group including the 1-0 victory over Wales in their latest match played. Wales narrowly took second spot by a superior goals difference to 3rd placed Switzerland. Turkey finished last in group A with no point.

Matches played so far in EURO 2020

Wales and Italy will play the runners up in group B and C respectively. As things stand in group C, Italy are likely to avoid a potential early meeting with Netherlands. Wales will also avoid playing Belgium in the round of 16 as things stand in group B. Switzerland will have to wait to see if they qualify as one of the 4 3rd best placed teams. Should Switzerland qualify, a tough game awaits them as they may play the winners of either group B, E or F in the round of 16.

EURO 2020: latest group standings

Latest Group Standings in Euro 2020

Euro 2020 group A


Euro 2020 Group B


Euro 2020 Group C

4North Macedonia200213-20

Euro 2020 Group D

1Czech Republic21103124

Euro 2020 Group E


Euro 2020 Group F


Imposed Loads for Residential Buildings

Floor usageDistributed load (kN/)Concentrated load (kN)
Type 1: self contained dwellings 1.51.4
Type 2: Apartment houses, boarding houses, hotels, residential clubs, block of flats .
Boiler rooms, motor rooms, fan rooms and the like.7.54.5
Communial kitchens, laundries34.5
Dinning, lounges, billiard rooms22.7
Toilet rooms2
Bedroom, dormitories 1.51.8
Corridors, stairs, landings, foor bridges, balconies 34.5
Type 3: Hotels & Motels
Boiler rooms, motor rooms, fan rooms and the like. Including weight of machinery7.54.5
Assembly areas without fixed sitting, dancehall bars 53.6
Assembly areas with fixed sitting4
Corridors, stairs, hallways, landings, footbridges etc44.5
Kitchens, laundries 34.5
Dinning, lounges, billiard rooms22.7
Toilet rooms2

Brief Introduction to Reinforced Concrete Design

In this article, the following questions will be answered.

  • What is concrete?
  • What is reinforced concrete?
  • Strength of concrete.
  • Concrete mix ratio for reinforced concrete.
  • Types of Steel used for reinforced concrete.
  •  letter codes for reinforcement steel.
  • Code of practice.
  • Structural layout.
  • Prior mathematical knowledge.

What is concrete?

Concrete is produced by the mixture of cement, sand, graded stones and water. It hardens to a solid mass in 28 days.

What is reinforced concrete?

Reinforced concrete is simply concrete structure that has been strengthened with steel.

Strength of concrete ( for reinforced concrete)

The strength  is  concrete that  is the accepted standard for reinforced concrete is 24 kN/mm²

Concrete mix ratio for reinforced concrete 

The standard mix ratio for reinforced concrete is 1:2:4. That is, 1 part of cement to 2 parts of fine aggregates (sand) to 4 parts of coarse aggregates ( graded stones/gravel/granite)

Types of steel used for reinforced concrete.

  1. Mild steel: have strength (fy) of  250 N/mm²
  2. High yield steel: have strength (fy) of 460 N/mm² 

High yield steel is more economical and is mostly used for reinforced concrete design.

Letter codes for reinforcement steel

R for mild steel

Y for high yield steel  (type 1 bars)

T for high yield steel (type 2 bars)

Square twisted high yield bars are type 1 while ribbed bars are type 2.

Code of practice

There are many codes of practice for reinforced concrete however the code used in this article is BS 8110.

BS 8110 is the former British code used for reinforced concrete design.

Every country or region has their own design code or uses adopted code from other countries or regions.

Structural layout

Structural layout is the drawing derived from architectural drawing. It shows  the arrangement of reinforced concrete structural elements such as slabs ,beams and columns and how these elements support the building structure. Structural layout must is done in such a way that it is;


2.the structural elements are economically arranged.

3. It does not distract or change the original design of the architect except where absolutely necessary and that is after consultation with the architect. 

Prior mathematical knowledge 

You should have learnt how to calculate shear forces and moments of framed structures.

How to make your fufu starch at home from cassava.

The  fufu starch in this article is made from fermented cassava that has been soaked in water for days.

How to do it

Harvest Cassava or buy


Peel off the outer skin of the cassava as shown

Peeled cassava

Wash the peeled cassava thoroughly 

Wash cassava

Soak the cassava in a bucket or bowl of clean water. Make sure all cassava is under the water surface. This process is to soften the cassava. It can take between 4 to 10 days for the cassava to soften

Soak cassava for 4-10 days

With a bowl of water and a plastic sieve as shown, squeeze and mash the softened cassava  with your hand in the sieve partially submerged in water to extract the starch into the water. You can throw away the residue or dry  and blend it and use to feed your chickens

If the soaked cassava is still to hard to process with your hand you can blend it then sieve in a bowl containing clean water as in the previous example. Blending the cassava may make the fufu more starchy 

Leave the processed mixture to settle for like 8 hours. You can speed up the process by pouring the mixture in a sieve bag and apply slight pressure by tieing the bag so that water goes out slowly into the bowl as shown

Leave fufu startch to settle

Extract the raw fufu starch  into a pot ready to cook

Fufu startch ready to cook

To watch the video see BELOW