The Economics of Reinforced Concrete Slab Design (In-situ)

slab construction

Reinforced concrete slabs can be divided into 2 types. They are In situ and precast slab. Insitu means a slab cast in place. Precast means that the slab is produced somewhere else and then transported to site for installation.

Cast in place slabs are further divided into 3 types. They are solid slab, flat slab and ribbed slab.

Solid slabs refers to slabs supported by beams or walls. They are economical up to spans of 5m

Flat slab refers to  a slab supported by columns only. The main advantage flat slabs have over solid slabs is that they are easier to construct. Also, widows can extend to the underside of a flat slab since it doesn’t require beams for support. The main disadvantage for these types of slab is that they are prone to punching shear. Flat slabs are economical for spans ranging from 5m to 9m.

Ribbed slabs are Slabs in which part of the slab in the tension zone has been omitted thereby reducing its weight considerably. They have higher formwork costs compared to other slab systems.Ribbed slabs are economical for spans ranging from 8m – 12m. 

Troubleshooting Surface or Submersible Water Pumps

submersible water pump & control box

Pump will not start

Possible causes:

Faulty electrical circuit.

Faulty pump.


Check fuses,  capacitor, switches and wiring, control box; replace worn or damaged components.

Have pump repaired or replaced.

Pump will not stop working.

Possible causes:

Faulty pump switch.


Repair or replace switch or control box.

Pump starts but stops often

Possible causes:

Malfunctioning control box, circuit breakers.

Malfunctioning pump/ pump motor.


Repair or replace control box. 

Check for any obstruction to pump motor and remove.

Repair or replace pump motor.

Repair/ replace pump/ pump motor.

Pump is working but no water is being pumped

Possible causes:

Inadequate prime.

Inadequate well capacity.

Blockage at pump intake.


Prime pump.

Switch off pump untill well refills or extend pump intake to a lower level.

Check for any obstruction inside pump or piping.

Pump is working but with excessive noise

Possible causes:

Worn motor bearings of pump.

Faulty pump mount.

Sticking valves in piston pumps.


Repair of replace motor bearings.

Check for any loose pump mount fittings; repair or replace.

Have pump repaired or replaced.

Choosing the right RAM for your PC

installed RAM on PC motherboard

Random Access Memory (RAM) stores memory temporarily for your computer programs to quickly access and use. RAM helps your computer run fast. In Fact apart from the Central Processing Unit, CPU, RAM is the next piece of hardware that helps boost the overall speed of your PC.

Buying good RAM for your PC is as important as the CPU. Even with a good CPU, running your PC on a poor RAM will slow down your PC.

There are many RAMs available, so you must choose the right RAM for your PC. Compatibility is a huge factor, always check that your PC is compatible with the RAM you want to buy before purchasing.


The two major pieces of information you should look out for in a RAM is its speed and storage capacity. The higher the speed and storage capacity of the RAM, the better.

Based on the type of PC you have, want to buy or build, There is usually a maximum limit of the RAM it can take. If you are building a PC, check the information that comes with the motherboard. Compatible RAMs and maximum RAM memory is clearly stated. If you bought a prebuilt PC/ laptop, check its user manual.

Most PCs come with 2 slots for installing RAM. The limiting factor is usually the maximum storage capacity of RAM it can handle. See the figure below. 

RAM memory limits for window based PCs

For instance if a PC can only handle a maximum of 8GB RAM, and it comes with 2 slots (which means you can install 2 RAMs), it’s either you install one 8GB RAM on one of the slots or two 4GB RAMs, one on each of the slots.

It is usually better to install the maximum capacity of RAM that your PC can take on one slot rather than sharing it across 2 slots.Your PC will run much faster using the first option.

How the Vacuum Cleaner Works

Vacuum Cleaner

Vacuum Cleaner s are used to suck up dust, debris and even liquid waste from our houses and environment. Vacuum cleaners come in various shapes and sizes. The bigger they are, the more powerful they can suck up dirt.

How Vacuum Cleaners Work

Vacuum Cleaners consists of 3 major components; 

  • The suction hose
  • The collecting bag or bin
  • The air blowing electric motor.
Vacuum Cleaner showing

The electric motor blows air Inside the vacuum cleaner. This creates a vacuum that then forces the dirt up the suction pipe into a collecting bar or container. The collecting bag or filter is porous, enabling air to pass through. If the air flow through the vacuum cleaner is impeded,it won’t properly suck up dirt. Note that as the dirt collecting bag fills up or the filters become clogged, the suction power of the vacuum cleaner reduces. It is best to empty the collecting bag when it is halfway full.

Troubleshooting your vacuum cleaner.

The most common problem of the vacuum cleaner that people often complain about is that it loses suction power. This problem is easy to fix. Remember that when airflow is impeded, the vacuum cleaner loses suction power. The number of ways airflow can be impeded is as follows;

  • The dirt/dust collecting bag is full
  • The vacuum filters are clogged
  • The suction pipe is blocked

Resolving the issue respectively is to empty the dirt/dust collecting bag, clean or replace the clogged filters , through the suction pipe.

Now, if the above remedies do not solve the problem, then the vacuum cleaner needs to be serviced by a qualified personnel.

How to prepare Potato Salad with Mayonnaise

Potato Salad with Mayonnaise

This type of salad is very easy to make, just boil the potatoes and dress with ingredients.

What you need to make Potatoes Salad with Mayonnaise.

1.5 pounds or 0.7 kg of potatoes.

Salt to taste

Pepper (as you require)

½ cup of finely chopped parsley ( scent leaves)

¼ cup chopped onions

Mayonnaise (to your taste).

How to prepare Potato Salad with Mayonnaise

  1. Peel and wash the potatoes, then put inside a cooking pot, add little salt and boil for about 15 minutes. Make sure not to overcook. After cooking, drain the potatoes, you can use cold water to rinse and drain again.
  2. Put the warm potatoes on a plate and toss it with the chopped parsley,pepper & onions. Next, add mayonnaise, you just add on top of the potatoes or gently mix it with the potatoes.
  3. Serve in its slightly warm state or refrigerate for 4 hours then serve.

Intel or AMD processors. Which one should you buy

Intel processor

The 2 CPU giants in the PC market are the Intel and AMD processors.

Of the 2 types of CPU makers mentioned above, Intel is the overall market leader in that their processors are widely preferred to that of AMD. Intel produces a wider range of processors and the  faster ones. You will agree with me that core i3, i5,  and i7s are the most sought after processors whether you want to build or buy a PC.

Intel processors are generally more expensive, but they give value for money. 

Does it mean that AMD processors are inferior; Not at all. The PS5 and PS4 video gaming consoles which are still the best sellers in the market run on AMD architecture. If you are on a budget, you should go for AMD processors as they are generally cheaper than their corresponding Intel counterparts.