Palm Kernel Soup

Banga soup

Palm kernel soup otherwise known as Banga Soup is a Nigerian delicacy prepared from the juice extracted from palm kernels. Basically, the palm kernel juice is boiled and then other soup ingredients such as spices, meat, fish, and vegetables are added to make the soup. It is delicious if well prepared. It is usually served with eba, fufu, or pounded yam.

The process of cooking palm kernel soup is basically the same, however, the type of spices, meat, fish, or other soup ingredients added, differ.

Ingredients required to cook Banga soup:

Ingredients required to cook palm kernel soup (banga soup)
Ingredients required to cook palm kernel soup (banga soup)

1 congo (1.5kg) of palm kernels

Spices: seasoning, salt, scent leaf, other types of spicing.

Meat or fish: boiled, dried or roasted meat can be used. The same for fish; can be boiled or dried.

Various type of meat, or fish can be used to cook this type of soup.

Process of cooking Banga soup:

  1. Boil the Palm kernel until the flesh covering the seeds becomes soft.
  2. Put the cooked kernels in a mortar, then use a pestle to pound the kernel lightly and in the process peeling or removing the cook flesh covering the seeds.  
  3. Pour water into the mixture in the mortar and stir.
  4. Using a sieve, squeeze out the juice from the mortar mixture into a cooking pot.
  5. Cook the palm kernel juice for about 10 minutes or until you see oil forming at the top of the boiling mixture.
    1. Spice and boil/ steam meat or fish as required. If the meat is already roasted or the fish is fresh, you can just add to the cooking soup.
  6. To the boiling palm kernel juice, add spicing the prepared meat or fish
  7. Leave to boil for about 5 to 10 minutes.
  8. Then soup is ready.

To watch a fast +1 minute video on how to cook palm kernel soup (banga soup) click this LINK to watch video

How to Wirelessly Connect PlayStation 4 Controllers to Console .

The PS4 usually ships, with one controller which you must connect to the console for the first time with the USB cable supplied. Once connected you can use it to control the console wirelessly, until you reset or use it on another console. You can also connect a new second controller with the usb cable, however it can also be connected wirelessly. Here is how;

Let’s say you just purchased 2 controllers for your console, this is what you should do.

Switch on the console.

Connect one of the controllers to the console using your PS4 USB cable or a compatible one.

The controller will glow if USB cable is properly connected.

Press the PS button on the controller, then logon to an account on your console.


You will see the already connected controller and the account it is connected to.

Now, to connect the second controller wirelessly; press the, PS button and the share button simultaneously for  about 5 seconds until the controller blinks.

The console detects the controller and it is shown on your TV screen under Bluetooth devices.

Use the first controller to select and register this second controller.

Immediately, the second controller is available for use with the console.

Subsequently, you can connect more controllers using this method.

Common Financial Terms

Here are some common Financial Terms and their meanings.

ATM: Automated teller machine. The ATM is a machine used to perform cash and cashless transactions such as deposits, withdrawals, payments and so on.

DEBIT CARD: This is a card used to spend as much as you have in your account.

CREDIT CARD: this is a buy now pay later type of card, you can spend more than what you have in your account. interest is charged for any unpaid balance.

DIRECT DEBIT: A setup by your banking institution to allow regular automatic payments such as electric or water bill.

CREDIT: Payment in.

DEBIT: Payment out.

BALANCE: What is left in your account after your credit and debit transactions.

SAVINGS ACCOUNT: An account opened for you by your banking institution for short term savings. When you deposit and hold money, the bank pass you interest for using that money to fund loans. You can access your money at any time and consequently, the interest rate is low.

CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSIT: This type of savings account attracts higher interest rate from deposits made. Your deposits is restricted in some way meaning you cannot withdraw money until after a fixed period.

INCOME: pay after taxes plus any other sources of money to have come in such as alimony and child support.

EXPENSE: money spent or withdrawn from your bank account.

BUDGETING: An itemized forecast of expenses expected for a period in the future.

OVERDRAFT: A process that allows you to spend than you have in your bank account.

SECURED LOAN: A load protected with your property.

MORTGAGE: Mortgage is a long term loan usually used to fund the buying of a home, repayment usually spread between 15-30 years. The borrower also have to prove the ability to maintain monthly payments for the term.

INSURANCE: A means of protecting your savings or property.

INFLATION: A phenomenon whereby the cost of consumer items rises over time.

GROSS PAY: total income.

NETPAY: Take home pay.

How to calculate how much fuel your car consumes per kilometer

To know how much fuel your car consumes per kilometer, follow these steps.

1. Keep driving your car until the fuel level reaches reserve or fuel warning light starts blinking.

2 . Immediately get to the nearest filling station and fill up your car fuel tank. Note the amount of fuel (in liters) that was required to fill your tank from the fuel dispensing machine.

3. On your car dashboard set trip distance to zero from the trip meter, or write down the distance (in Km) covered by your car up to the point when you filled your fuel tank, from the odometer

4. Drive your car until fuel reaches reserve again.

5. At that point read the amount of distance covered by your car from the trip meter on your dashboard. Alternatively, read distance covered by car up to that point from the odometer and deduct from distance covered when you filled up tank at filling station.

6. Next divide the number of liters consumed (what was recorded at the filling station) by amount of distance covered.

For example, let’s say the amount of liters that filled up your car tank at the filling station was 35 liters, and at the time fuel depleted to reserve, you had covered a distance of 250Km driving, then amount of fuel consumed per kilometer can be calculated as follows;

35liters/250Km = 0.14liters/ Km

Or ,the distance covered per liter is 250km/35liters = 7.142Km per liter

How to Update PS4 System Software to latest version from USB Flash Drive.

Update PS4 from USB flash

To update PS4 system software to latest version via USB flash drive,go to Google search, and type; “PlayStation software update”.

On the search results, click on any PS4 system software update link that emanates from In this case, search result 1 will suffice.

PS4 system software search

On the webpage, locate the latest PS4 system software update link, and download.

Locate the downloaded file, and rename to; PS4UPDATE.PUP, if necessary.

Insert USB flash drive into your laptop or desktop.

Open the flash drive and in it, create a folder named; PS4.

Next open this newly created PS4 folder, and inside it create another folder named; UPDATE.

Locate the downloaded PS4UPDATE.PUP file and place it inside the newly created UPDATE folder.

Now inside the flash drive we have the PS4 folder, inside the PS4 folder we have the, UPDATE folder and inside the update folder we have the PS4UPDATE.PUP file.

This is how the update file should be set up inside the flash drive for the console to recognize it.

Now insert the flash drive into your PS4 console and switch it on.

Log into your account.

Go to settings, then, system software update.

Your console automatically detects update software including the version it will be updating to, on USB flash drive,

 click NEXT

 then Click UPDATE and the wait for your console’s system software to update,

your console will restart during the update process.

After update is complete, you can confirm by going to SETTINGS, SYSTEM, SYSTEM INFROMATION. There you will see the new version it has updated to.

To watch video of the process, Click this link to video on my YouTube channel.

Load Combinations in Reinforced Concrete Design.

Load combination.

The load combination for reinforced concrete design is 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk where Gk and Qk represent dead and imposed loads respectively. 1.4 and 1.6 is the factor of safety for dead and 1.6 is the factor of safety for imposed loads.

Other local combinations include; 1.2 Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk where Wk represents wind load.

For full information on load combinations see table 2.1 page 9 of BS 8110 part 1, 1997.

In reality however, various load combinations of dead, imposed and wind loads should be considered. This is to ensure that the structure is designed for the worst possible case.

Load cases:

While it is ok to load all parts of the structure using 1.4Gk + 1.6Q, it is also to be appreciated that theoretically, these loads can vary i.e from 1.0 Gk to 1.4 Gk and 0.0 Qk to 1.6 Qk, in the light of these, various load cases need to be considered to achieve an accurate design.

For example, assuming we are working on a 3 span beam with Gk of 25kN/m and Qk of 10kN/m. It is good practice to consider the following load cases;

Case 1: loaded even spans with 1.4Gk + 1.6Qand odd spans with 1.0Gk.

Even Span Loaded 1
even span loaded 2

Case 2: loaded odd spans with 1.4Gk + 1.6Qand even spans with 1.0Gk.

odd spans loaded 1
odd spans loaded 2

Case 3: All spans with 1.4Gk + 1.6Q 

All spans loaded 1
All spans loaded 2

Each load case is analyzed for bending moments and shear forces.

Bending moment diagrams for each load case. (all values in kNm);

CASE 1. (Even spans loaded):

Moment diagram for even span loaded

CASE 2. (Odd spans loaded):

moment diagram for odd spans loaded

CASE 3. (All spans loaded)

moment diagram for all spans loaded

The results of load cases are then compared. So for any beam span, the highest value of bending moment and shear forces of the 3 load cases is taken for design.

Final Result.

Final result


Mosley & Bungey, Reinforced concrete design. 5th Ed. Page 30.

BS 8110 part 1, 1997.