Internal Combustion Engine

4 Stroke Engine courtesy Wikipedia

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which air and fuel mixture in a combustion chamber is ignited under high pressure and temperature, the power of the explosive energy created is transferred to the piston which in turn is converted to mechanical energy.

The 3 major substance needed for internal combustion to occur in an engine is Oxygen, heat and fuel.

Bottom Dead Center. (BDC):  when the piston is at the lowest possible level in the cylinder, its position is at the Bottom Dead Center.

Top Dead Center (TDC): when the piston’s position is at the highest possible level within the cylinder, it is at the Top Dead Center.

Stroke: when the piston moves from top dead center to bottom dead center, it is called a stroke. For internal combustion to occur, the piston moves from TDC to BDC and from BDC to TDC, that is, it takes 2 strokes for combustion to occur. This is where the name 2 stroke engine is derived.

Basic Process of the Internal Combustion in a 4 Stroke Engine.

Basically it involves 4 processes namely;

  1. Suction
  2. Compression
  3. Ignition
  4. Exhaust


The piston starts by taking a downward stroke and in the process, sucks in Air and fuel mixture into the cylinder until it reaches BDC.


 At the BDC, air/fuel intake supply is cut off and the piston now takes an upward stroke. In the process, the piston compresses the air/fuel mixture until it reaches TDC.


At TDC, the spark plug ignites the mixture causing an explosion within the cylinder. The force of the explosion forces the piston back down.


As the piston moves back up after the impact of the explosive energy, the exhaust valve is opened to expel burnt air fuel mixture.

When the piston reaches TDC, the exhaust valve is closed and air/fuel intake valve is opened and the whole process repeats.

The up and down piston is converted to circular motion which is used for instance to rotate the wheels of cars, generate electrical energy and so on.

 The 2 Stroke Engine

 An engine is called 2 stroke engine if its takes just the piston to move 2 strokes for internal combustion to occur. In a 2 stroke engine, the piston moves from TDC to BDC sucking in air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber. It then moves from BDC to TDC and in the process, compressing the fuel mixture, followed by ignition then exhaust of burnt mixture as the piston moves down to BDC.

The 2 stroke engine is not as efficient as a 4 stroke engine for this reason it is used for small engines. In the compression stroke of a 2 stroke engine, some air and fuel mixture escapes through the exhaust pipe. For this reason, power produced is smaller compared to a 4 stroke engine.

How to Effectively Manage Your Income.

Managing one’s income; for most people is likened to the Biblical passage of, “The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. It is not the aim of a breadwinner to run into debt, but eventually he will find himself in it. Once in debt, there is always the tendency to remain in it because you spend more to get out of debt.

So how can you effectively manage your income; here are six ways to help you.

  1. Spend less than you make:  Don’t spend more than your income! Know your NEEDS and your WANTS.  In simple terms, your needs are what is considered necessary such as food, electricity, clothing, transportation etc. Your wants are what you can do without ,such as, 4k TV, expensive clothing, videogame console, summer vacation etc.. This is an exercise of self-control.
  2. Pay yourself first: set a savings goal. Your savings can be used to build an emergency fund, 10% of your savings is a good way to start.
  3. Get out debt: Stay out of debt! Other than mortgage or other manageable business loans, stay out of debt. You are either paying interest when you are in debt, or earning interest, when you are out of debt.
  4. Get health insurance coverage:  take advantage of the government’s health insurance packages for you and your family. Don’t say you are healthily, and you don’t need health insurance, in case of an emergency, it could save you lot of huge spending and running into unplanned debt.
  5. Don’t be greedy:  Avoid get rich quick schemes. While what they tell you is true, it also comes with very high risk and equal possibility of losing all your investment.
  6. Use debt wisely: debt should finance true emergencies that you cannot pay out of your savings, e.g. a new roof, car, house. Don’t use debt to finance short term loans such as plasma Tv, new clothes, vacation etc., debt used this way is the enemy that can run you bankrupt.

Remember, how much you make, matters some, but how much you keep matters most.

Why keep a lot of cash at hand when you have a bank account

Hand held cash

The revolution in the Telecommunications industry have greatly improved the way banks operate. Gone are the days when you have to wait hours at the bank to send and receive payments. You can easily make payments using your debit/ credit cards and your mobile phone. Most business merchants have upgraded their system to receive payments electronically. The banks keep on improving their cashless policy schemes. So if you still keep a lot of cash at hand, here are reasons why you should not do so.

High risk: The risk of keeping lot of cash at hand is much higher than when kept at the bank as it could get lost or stolen.

Paying Utility Bills:  It is easier to pay utility bills by instructing your bank to debit your account electronically than going through the hassles of paying in cash.

Obtaining Loan or Mortgage: To obtain a loan or mortgage, you need a bank account to ensure steady automatic payments when due.

Handling large Payments: It is usually safer to handle large payment transactions electronically as the receiver won’t be able to deny in whole or part that payment was made.

Web Transactions:  when doing web transactions on the internet, it is impossible to use cash in hand, you will have to make use of your bank account to transfer and receive payment electronically.

You do need cash at hand, but carrying a lot of it around is unsafe and unnecessary.



The XBOX SERIES X is currently the most powerful gaming console developed by Microsoft.  It will be succeeding the Xbox one line of consoles and is set for release by late 2020. Its competitor will be the PlayStation 5 also scheduled for release around the same period. According to its manufacturers, the console will render at 4k stunning graphics (also 8k ready), faster loading times , better gameplay performance, backward compatibility with Xbox one ,Xbox 360 and original Xbox games and much more.


CPU:      Custom 3.8 GHz AMD 8-core Zen 2 (3.6 GHz with SMT)

Media: Ultra HD Blu-ray, Blu-ray, DVD, CD

Storage    : 1 TB Custom SSD

Removable storage: Storage Card (up to 2 TB)

Memory: 16 GB GDDR6 SDRAM

Display : 720p, 1080p, 1440p, 4K UHD, 8K UHD

Graphics: Custom 1.825 GHz AMD Radeon RDNA 2 architecture

Controller:  4th-generation Xbox Controller, compatible Xbox One controllers and accessories

Sound:  Custom Project Acoustics 3D Audio

Backward compatibility: Xbox One and select Xbox 360 and original Xbox games

Dimensions:       15.1 cm × 15.1 cm × 30.1 cm


New controller for Xbox series X and older Xbox consoles.

The controller has be redesigned. It now features well sculpted surfaces and modified geometry for improved comfort during gameplay. Sharing content with the controller has been made easier. The controller can also work with older Xbox consoles, compatible PCs and mobile devices.


The is no official price statement from Microsoft yet, but it won’t be anything less than $500 since it’s the most powerful console. We are making our assumption based on the fact that the Xbox One X was released with the same price tag back in July 2017.


Some games that have been developed with the Xbox Series X development kit and would be available by official release period include;

Assassin’s Creed Valhalla

Scarlet Nexus

Yakuza: Like a Dragon

Vampire: The Masquerade – Bloodlines 2


Bright Memory: Infinite


Second Extinction

Call of the Sea

The Ascent

All games will display at 4k and at least 60FPS.

You can also read ABOUT THE PLAYSTATION 5


PlayStation 5 with one DualSense Controller

The PlayStation 5 (PS5) will be out soon and we are waiting in anticipation. Sony has announced that this great console will launch in the holiday season around November 2020. The PS5 will be taking over from the PS4 and it is expected to be a much more powerful console. The PS5 will launch in 2 variants; the fully digital console ( without  Ultra HD Blu-ray compatible optical disc drive) and of course the one with HD blue ray disc drive. The console will render at 4k resolution (theoretically can render up to 8k and also be able to play most PS4 games as well as VR.


CPU:      8-core AMD Zen 2, frequency up to 3.5 GHz

Storage: Custom 825 GB SSD

Memory: 16 GB GDDR6 SDRAM

Media:  Ultra HD Blu-ray, Blu-ray, DVD, CD

Removable storage:       Internal SSD, or external USB-based HDD

Display: Video output formats HDMI: 480p, 720p, 1080i, 1080p, 4K UHD, 8K UHD

Graphics: Custom AMD RDNA 2, variable frequency, up to 2.23 GHz

Controller: DualSense

Input:    HDMI 2.1


Dual Sense

The PS5 will have a new controller called DualSense. This controller is based on the dualshock controller but with new modifications; among which is an incorporated microphone. That is; the PS5 controller will have an inbuilt microphone so you do not need to connect ear piece or head set before you can communicate with other Players. It maintains most of the buttons on the PS4 dual shock 4 controller.


There is no official statement of price of the PS5 by Sony. Sony said the PS5 concentrated on value, so we expect it to be more expensive than the PS4. Remember that the PS5 will be coming in 2 variants;  a fully digital (cheaper) edition and fully digital edition with Ultra Blu ray optical drive (costlier). We are predicting a price range of 400-700$.


Marvel’s Spider-Man: Miles Morales

Ratchet & Clank: Rift Apart

Gran TurismoTM 7


Sackboy A Big Adventure

Demon’s Souls

Destruction AllStars

Resident Evil Village


NBA 2K21

Grand Theft Auto V and Grand Theft Auto Online

For full list of upcoming games on the PS5, VISIT HERE


Some Optional PS5 Accessories

Optional accessories for the PS5 include; HD camera, remote control, wireless 3D headset, charging station for dualsense controller and much more.