Internal Combustion Engine

4 Stroke Engine courtesy Wikipedia

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which air and fuel mixture in a combustion chamber is ignited under high pressure and temperature, the power of the explosive energy created is transferred to the piston which in turn is converted to mechanical energy.

The 3 major substance needed for internal combustion to occur in an engine is Oxygen, heat and fuel.

Bottom Dead Center. (BDC):  when the piston is at the lowest possible level in the cylinder, its position is at the Bottom Dead Center.

Top Dead Center (TDC): when the piston’s position is at the highest possible level within the cylinder, it is at the Top Dead Center.

Stroke: when the piston moves from top dead center to bottom dead center, it is called a stroke. For internal combustion to occur, the piston moves from TDC to BDC and from BDC to TDC, that is, it takes 2 strokes for combustion to occur. This is where the name 2 stroke engine is derived.

Basic Process of the Internal Combustion in a 4 Stroke Engine.

Basically it involves 4 processes namely;

  1. Suction
  2. Compression
  3. Ignition
  4. Exhaust


The piston starts by taking a downward stroke and in the process, sucks in Air and fuel mixture into the cylinder until it reaches BDC.


 At the BDC, air/fuel intake supply is cut off and the piston now takes an upward stroke. In the process, the piston compresses the air/fuel mixture until it reaches TDC.


At TDC, the spark plug ignites the mixture causing an explosion within the cylinder. The force of the explosion forces the piston back down.


As the piston moves back up after the impact of the explosive energy, the exhaust valve is opened to expel burnt air fuel mixture.

When the piston reaches TDC, the exhaust valve is closed and air/fuel intake valve is opened and the whole process repeats.

The up and down piston is converted to circular motion which is used for instance to rotate the wheels of cars, generate electrical energy and so on.

 The 2 Stroke Engine

 An engine is called 2 stroke engine if its takes just the piston to move 2 strokes for internal combustion to occur. In a 2 stroke engine, the piston moves from TDC to BDC sucking in air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber. It then moves from BDC to TDC and in the process, compressing the fuel mixture, followed by ignition then exhaust of burnt mixture as the piston moves down to BDC.

The 2 stroke engine is not as efficient as a 4 stroke engine for this reason it is used for small engines. In the compression stroke of a 2 stroke engine, some air and fuel mixture escapes through the exhaust pipe. For this reason, power produced is smaller compared to a 4 stroke engine.

How to Effectively Manage Your Income.

Managing one’s income; for most people is likened to the Biblical passage of, “The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. It is not the aim of a breadwinner to run into debt, but eventually he will find himself in it. Once in debt, there is always the tendency to remain in it because you spend more to get out of debt.

So how can you effectively manage your income; here are six ways to help you.

  1. Spend less than you make:  Don’t spend more than your income! Know your NEEDS and your WANTS.  In simple terms, your needs are what is considered necessary such as food, electricity, clothing, transportation etc. Your wants are what you can do without ,such as, 4k TV, expensive clothing, videogame console, summer vacation etc.. This is an exercise of self-control.
  2. Pay yourself first: set a savings goal. Your savings can be used to build an emergency fund, 10% of your savings is a good way to start.
  3. Get out debt: Stay out of debt! Other than mortgage or other manageable business loans, stay out of debt. You are either paying interest when you are in debt, or earning interest, when you are out of debt.
  4. Get health insurance coverage:  take advantage of the government’s health insurance packages for you and your family. Don’t say you are healthily, and you don’t need health insurance, in case of an emergency, it could save you lot of huge spending and running into unplanned debt.
  5. Don’t be greedy:  Avoid get rich quick schemes. While what they tell you is true, it also comes with very high risk and equal possibility of losing all your investment.
  6. Use debt wisely: debt should finance true emergencies that you cannot pay out of your savings, e.g. a new roof, car, house. Don’t use debt to finance short term loans such as plasma Tv, new clothes, vacation etc., debt used this way is the enemy that can run you bankrupt.

Remember, how much you make, matters some, but how much you keep matters most.

Why keep a lot of cash at hand when you have a bank account

Hand held cash

The revolution in the Telecommunications industry have greatly improved the way banks operate. Gone are the days when you have to wait hours at the bank to send and receive payments. You can easily make payments using your debit/ credit cards and your mobile phone. Most business merchants have upgraded their system to receive payments electronically. The banks keep on improving their cashless policy schemes. So if you still keep a lot of cash at hand, here are reasons why you should not do so.

High risk: The risk of keeping lot of cash at hand is much higher than when kept at the bank as it could get lost or stolen.

Paying Utility Bills:  It is easier to pay utility bills by instructing your bank to debit your account electronically than going through the hassles of paying in cash.

Obtaining Loan or Mortgage: To obtain a loan or mortgage, you need a bank account to ensure steady automatic payments when due.

Handling large Payments: It is usually safer to handle large payment transactions electronically as the receiver won’t be able to deny in whole or part that payment was made.

Web Transactions:  when doing web transactions on the internet, it is impossible to use cash in hand, you will have to make use of your bank account to transfer and receive payment electronically.

You do need cash at hand, but carrying a lot of it around is unsafe and unnecessary.