Roads; an Explanation

A Road is a smooth path carved out on land for easy movement of people, goods and vehicles from one place to another. These days a road would usually mean an established pathway for the easy movement of vehicles or other form of locomotives from one place to another.

Road may be divided into four types

  1. Private road
  2. 2 lane road
  3. Dual carriage ways
  4. Express way

Private road

Private road

This means for example, the drive way to your house. Road managed by local community or estate. A private road can be individually or organizationally owned and maintained.

2 lane Road

2 lane road

Two lane roads are single carriageways. Traffic flows in opposite direction on each lane. Two lane roads are common in rural and urban areas. Speed limit on this type of road is low because it has too many access points.

Dual carriageways

Dual carriageway

Dual carriage way is a type of roadway in traffic in opposite directions is separated by a central reservation or barrier. In each traffic direction, the road may consist of multiple lanes. Dual carriage  ways are designed to very high standards so it can double as a free or motorway.



Express ways are roads built for speed. To encourage this, there is controlled and limited access into these types of roads. They are built to the highest of standards. Expressways are dual carriage ways clearly separated by central reservation or barrier.

Expressways have the highest acceptable speed limits.

Levelling Simply Explained

Levelling is a process of establishing heights relative to a datum or a fixed point. Datum is known as mean sea level and this level varies between countries.

For easy determination of true heights, official or certified benchmarks (certified levels) are placed  in various places in your area or country.

Benchmarks are the stated official height of a place with reference to the Datum.

With these benchmarks you can easily determine the height of a particular site by reference to it.

In a situation where the benchmark is far from a site where height or level is to be determined, Temporary benchmarks (TBM)can be established close to the site of interest with reference to the  benchmark . 

TBMs make it easier to establish levels or control heights on site.

Simple land height determination example

Levelling calculation example

Taking a look at the diagram above, you are to determine the height or level of land at point B


At point A, you have a TBM of 180m ( above mean sea level)

Set up the leveling instrument somewhere around point C ( in such a way that you can potentially sight staff placed at point A and B without obstruction)

With the help of someone, place a levelling staff on top of the TBM in a vertical position at point A

Point your leveling instrument at the staff and take your readings.

Let’s assume that the reading on the staff you took is 2.55m. This is the backsight reading which is always your first reading.

Next, without changing the position of the leveling instrument, point the leveling instrument at point B and take staff reading.

Let’s assume the reading you took was 1.2m

To determine the level of ground at point B, add the TBM reading plus backsight reading.

I.e 180m + 2.55m = 182.55m

Next, deduct the second staff reading from 182.55m

I.e 182.55m – 1.2m = 181.35m

Therefore point B is at a level of 181.35m

As a check. Since point B is higher than point A, deduct staff reading at point B from that at point A

I.e 2.55m – 1.2 = 1.35m

Then add this difference to the TBM at A 

I.e 180 + 1.35 = 181.35m.

Frank Lampard has been Sacked

Frank Lampard

Frank Lampard has been sacked as Chelsea manager just after 18 months in charge. Lampard lead Chelsea to 4th position in the league and FA cup final last season.  He has also helped Chelsea easily qualify for the second round in pole position, in this season’s champions league.

Chelsea  started this season’s premier league campaign on a good note, hoping to fight for the title. Towards the end of 2020, they were top of the premier league. But things have turned sour as Chelsea have lost 5 out of their past 8 matches. They are presently 9th on the table.

Lampard’s sack was confirmed on Monday 25 January by the Chelsea management citing poor run of results.

Even Chelsea’s last 3-1 win over Luton in their lasted FA cup match couldn’t  save him

Lampard was appointed on a 3year contract in July 2019. He is disappointed not to have had the time to take the club forward.

However, Chelsea owner, Roman Abramovich said Lampard’s status as an important icon of the club remains intact despite his sacking.

Thomas Tuchel

Chelsea has appointed former PSG coach: Thomas Tuchel to take over from Lampard. He may be available  as early as Chelsea’s home game against Wolves on Wednesday

Setting out of Buildings

The setting out of a building simply means the marking out of walls, columns, foundation widths and other important elements of a building about to be constructed. Since accuracy is the key, setting out must be undertaking by competent persons. 

Profile Board

Examples of persons that can set out a building are civil engineers and land surveyours.

All setting out work should be thoroughly checked by a different personel using different methods.

It is usually the responsibility of the contractor to set out buildings using information provided in the architectural and structural drawings.

How buildings are set out

The first task in setting out of a building is to establish a base line upon which all setting out will be related. The base line often coincides with the building line.

Setting out building outline

The building line is a line in front of which no construction is permitted by the building/ town planning authorities. For example, the building line for a small estate road can be at a specified distance  of say, 3m, from the road way; 

After the building line is established, a perimeter of profile boards is then set out to surround the actual building area at an offset of about 2m or more. This is to allow adequate room for marking out and excavation of trenches. 

Setting out

The top of the profile boards should be at the same level . 

The corners must be at 90 angles with the use of builders square or theodolite. Diagonal checks must be carried out to confirm accuracy of the setting  out work.

 The next step is to mark out on the profile boards; wall, column and trench positions. Ropes tied on the marked positions  of profile boards and transferred to the corresponding opposite directions (  of marked positions on the opposite profile boards) will show the width of trenches to be dug out.

The width positions can be marked on ground by use of dry lime or similar powder.

Another method is to mark out the exact building outline using corner posts firmly driven into the ground (see 2nd figure).

Corner peg; setting out building outline

With nail driven into the center of the corner posts, cord is tied from one corner to another, connecting  all corners. The outline can then be transferred/ marked on ground using dry lime or similar powder.  Using the building outline, profile boards can then be erected for excavation of trenches and construction of walls and columns

Trench setting out

For larger structures such as large framed buildings, setting out is best carried out by a theodolite or total station equipment. These types of buildings are usually related to a grid system, the intersection of the grid being the center point of an isolated pad footing. The total station can be used to accurately establish the grid system on ground, marking the intersections of grids with stout pegs.

grid method used for setting out columns in large projects

Once grid has been set out, offset pegs or profiles can be fixed clear of subsequent excavation work.

Meaning of some Common Symbols You See in Building Drawings.


Brick wall

Stone work
Reinforced Concrete
Mass Concrete
Unwrot Timber
Wrot Timber
Dimension Lines
Water Closet
Wash Basin
Table & Chair
Switch Doctor
Single Door
Shower unit
Rain Water Pipe
Pendant switch
Hidden Line

Hard Core
Folding Door
Fluorescent Lamp
Filament lamp
Electricity meter
Drain and Pipe Lines
Double Door
Distribution Board
Grid / Control Line
2 Way Switch

English Premier League Match Day 18/19

English Premier League Table

1Manchester City19125236132341
2Manchester United20124437271040
3Leicester City20123536221439
4West Ham United2010553024635
6Tottenham Hotspur1896333171633
10Aston Villa1892733211229
12Leeds United198293235-326
13Wolverhampton Wanderers206592129-823
14Crystal Palace206592436-1223
16Newcastle United2054111934-1519
17Brighton & Hove Albion203982229-718
19West Bromwich Albion2025131548-3311
20Sheffield United2022161233-218