Understanding Laptop Battery Power Ratings

Laptop battery power rating

Your laptop battery power rating can be found  labelled on the battery. A typical laptop battery rating is as stated below;

Laptop battery

11.1V, 5.2Ah, 57Wh.

This means that the battery supplies 11.1 volts, a current of 5.2 Ampere hours and a power of 57 Watts hour.

What does this information really tell? 5.2Ah means the battery can supply a current of 5.2A in one hour before it runs out . Or 57 Watts in one hour before it depletes provided the voltage supplied remains constant.

So let’s say your laptop power rating is 30Watts then on a battery capacity of 57Wh, your laptop will run for( 57Wh÷30W)= 1.9h or almost 2 hours. In reality it may be more or less as a result of several factors.

Both Watts hour( Wh) and Ampere hour( Ah) are measures of battery capacity. However, Wh is more reliable.

A laptop battery is usually made up of small battery cells. These battery cells are similar in shape to AA alkaline batteries but bigger..

6 cell laptop battery

 Laptop battery usually consists of at least 3 or 4 battery cells arranged in series. To increase the laptop battery capacity, 2 or more sets of 3 or 4 battery cells in series are arranged in parallel.

The smallest laptop batteries I have come across are the 3 cell batteries. That is, consisting of 3 battery cells in series. These types of batteries are usually made for netbooks.

The standard laptop battery is made up of 6 cells. It consists of 2 sets of 3 battery cells in series, connected in parallel. 

Similarly, a 9 cell laptop battery consists of 3 sets of 3 battery cells in series, connected in parallel. Of course there are laptop batteries. comprising sets of 4 battery cells in series, connected in parallel. 

Laptop battery cells  are connected in series and then in parallel to fulfill 2 purposes;

  1. To meet the voltage rating required for the laptop to operate. This condition is met when the battery cells are connected in series.
  2. To increase the time the laptop can run on batteries. This condition is met when sets of battery cells in series are connected in parallel.

Decoding laptop battery power ratings

Laptop battery cell

A single battery cell can supply 3.6 or 3.7 volts and a current of over 2Ah. Since in electrical terms, power = current × volts, a battery cell can supply ( 3.6V× 2Ah = 7.2Wh) a power of over 7.2 Wh.

Battery power ratings for your laptop are labelled on the battery. 

For example assuming the battery power ratings are;

11.1V, 5.2Ah and 57Wh.

11.1V is the result of three, 3.7V battery cells in series. That is (3.7 + 3.7 +3.7)V= 11.1V. If the battery rating was 10.8V, then it implies that three 3.6V battery are connected in series, that is (3.6+3.6+3.6)V= 10.8.

5.2Ah is the result of two sets of three 3.7V batteries in series, connected in parallel. It means each of the 3.7V battery supplies a current of 2.6Ah. Even though 3cells are in series, the same 2.6Ah flows through the series connection. But because 2 sets of 3 battery cells in series are connected together in parallel, then the current supplied becomes 2× 2.6Ah = 5.2Ah.

From the calculations given above, you will realise that the laptop battery comprises 6 cells. Since power = current × volts, then each battery cell produces  ( 2.6Ah×3.7V) = 9.62Wh ( when fully charged)

57Wh is the result of multiplying the power produced by one battery cell by 6.( since there are six cells in the laptop battery).

I.e. 9.62×6= 57.72Wh rounded down to 57Wh by the manufacturers.

How to Check the Window Experience Index Score of Your Windows 10 PC

Windows Experience Index (WEI) score is a score that states your computer’s hardware performance characteristics and capabilities. WEI score implies how good your PC is at handling various tasks.

The Windows System Assessment Tool (Win SAT) calculates the WEI score. It reports individual scores of the various hardware components of your PC and states the hardware component with the lowest score as your PC’s Window Experience Index Score. For windows 10 PCs it’s on a scale of 1-10. 

How to Determine the WEI Scores of Your Windows 10 PC

  1. Locate the command prompt app, (you can use the search feature), right click and run it as administrator.
  2. In the command prompt interface, type, winsat formal, as shown and press enter.
  3. The WinSAT command will run and determine the WEI scores, wait for it to finish, it can take a while.
  4. When finished it will state total time it took to complete the process.

Close command prompt then navigate to your PC’s main disk storage. In this case, Local Disk (C:), yours may have a different name.

Click on it, then Windows, Performance, Win SAT, Data Store

Inside the data store folder you will see files containing the WEI scores of major hardware components.

For summary of these scores, open the file containing the name formal assessment; Right click and use a browser to open.

You will see the WinSat scores as shown.

The system score of 5.9 is the Windows experience Index Score for the PC tested. It is the same as the hard disk score which is the lowest score of all the hardware components measured.

To get a better presentation of WEI score you can run the PowerShell app. Run it as administrator. At the command prompt, type;

Get-CimInstance Win32_WinSat as shown.  The Windows Experience Index score is revealed.

Another way you can do this is through the Performance Monitor app.

In Performance Monitor, expand data collector sets, expand System then click and start System Diagnostics.

Then, expand Reports followed by System, then System Diagnostics.

Under System Diagnostics, click on the report file that bears your computer name.

To the right of the interface expand Hardware Configuration, then Desktop Rating.

Inside Desktop Rating, click the plus sign to the left of Query, then the plus sign next to Returned Objects. The WinSat Scores are revealed.

As stated earlier the score of the least performing hardware is the WEI Score. It is intended to show the particular hardware creating a bottleneck in the system.In this case the Hard Disk Drive. Replacing with a Solid State Drive (SSD) will improve WEI score. 

How to connect a PlayStation 4 Controller to a Windows Based PC

Yes it’s true, you can connect a PlayStation 4 (PS4) controller wirelessly to a windows PC using an emulator.

Items needed

1.   Internet and Bluetooth enabled windows based PC. Preferably a window 10 PC

2.   DS4 Windows Software.

3.   Fully charged PS4 controller

Video Demonstration

Here is how to connect PS4 controller to PC

  1. Connect your PS4 controller to PC via Bluetooth. Press the PS button on your PS4 controller and check the Bluetooth interface of your pc to ensure it is connected.
  2. Make sure your PC is connected to the internet.
  3. Go to https://github.com/Jays2Kings/DS4Windows/releases and download DS4 windows. Download and extract to any location of your choice.
  4. Open the extracted folder and locate the executable file. You can make a shortcut to the file on your desktop
  5. Start DS4 windows by clicking on the executable file.
  6. DS4 windows will find your connected PS4 controller and may give a prompt to download additional software needed to make the PS4 controller work. This will only happen if you are doing this for the first time.
  7. After additional software have been downloaded and installed, reboot your PC
  8. Make sure your PC’s Bluetooth is active, then press the PS button on your PS4 controller to connect.
  9. Start DS4 windows and it will immediately activate your PS4 controller for gaming. If properly connected, the PS4 controller light will show boldly.
  10. To check that the controller is working perfectly you can click on TEST CONTROLLER on the DS4 windows interface. 
  11. It will take you to a webpage where you can test your controller. 

Note that the DS4 windows software makes the Windows PC think that the PS4 controller is an Xbox 360 controller.

How You Can Improve Your Cybersecurity for Free

You are always a target  for hackers (be prepared)

Always understand that your computer, phones or private information can be hacked. Take precautions in whatever you do in this regard. Encrypt, use PIN or password to protect your sensitive data.

Use antivirus and other security software packages.

On your computer devices, always endeavor to install and use antivirus and similar security packages. In some cases, you can install them for free. For instance Windows based PCs come with a free but very powerful security software called Windows Security. Most high end android phones come with free premium antivirus and encryption software.

Encrypt sensitive data

Always encrypt sensitive data. Encryption protects your data against unauthorised access. Do not transmit sensitive information except it is encrypted.

Use HTTPS when working with sensitive information on a website.

Never transmit sensitive information unless on a website except it is using SSL/TLS encryption, and the page loads with HTTPS, not HTTP.

Back up often

Always back up sensitive data regularly so that in the event of a computer crash or hacker attack, you can recover without any troubles.

Do not share account login details with people

Do not share your login details of sensitive accounts with people you don’t trust. If possible, don’t share your login details with anyone.

Use proper authentication

Avoid use of complex hard to remember passwords.

Don’t overshare on social media

Use social media wisely, mind the type of information you post on sites such as facebook twitter, instagram and so on.

Use public/school/company Wi-Fi Safely

While public Wi-fi is good, do not use them to transfer sensitive data as these public networks are not as safe as private networks. Also these type networks are closely monitored.

How to Hard reset a Mac PC

Before you hard reset your Mac, it is wise to do the following.

  1. Back up important data
  2. Sign out of iTunes, messages and iCloud
  3. Unlock any app that is locked to your Mac

Doing the above steps will make it easy to logon to these platforms after resetting your device.

To hard reset do the following;

1.Restart your Mac and hold down the Command and R keys while it boots.

If you are asked to choose a language of your choice, choose English 

2. Run the Disk Utility.

3. In the Disk Utility screen, select your device’s main hard disk volume, then click on Unmount, then Erase.

4. Erase all contents of other disks in the device.

5.  Exit the Disk Utility by clicking Quit Disk Utility in the Disk Utility menu.

6. Click on Reinstall macOS and follow the steps to reinstall the operating system onto the primary disk.  

How to Hard Reset your iPhone

To hard reset your iPhone do the following:

1. Run the Settings app and choose General ,   Reset ,  Erase All Content and Settings.

2. If you’re asked for your Apple ID and Password to confirm the reset, enter them.

3. When you see a warning and a red Erase iPhone (or iPad) button, click on it.

How to Reset a Windows 10 PC You can’t login to.

This method is necessary if you can’t login to Windows 10.  This can happen if you forgot your password or if an hacker changed your password.

1. Boot your PC.

2. When the login screen appears, click on the Power icon in the bottom right-hand corner.

You will be prompted with several choices. Do not click on any of them  yet.

3. Without clicking any choices, hold down the Shift key and then click on Restart.

A menu appears.

4. Click on Troubleshoot.

5. Select, Reset This PC.

6. Select, Remove Everything.

Please make sure you read the warnings carefully before proceeding.