From Horseless Carriages to Modern Marvels: A Look at the History of the Car

The automobile, a ubiquitous symbol of modern life, has a surprisingly long and fascinating history. While many associate the invention of the car with a single person, the truth is a fascinating story of incremental innovation and contributions from various inventors.

Early Attempts at Self-Propelled Vehicles (17th-18th Centuries):

The concept of a self-propelled vehicle dates back centuries before the gasoline-powered cars we know today. In the 17th century, inventors like Ferdinand Verbiest, a Jesuit missionary in China, sketched designs for steam-powered carriages. In 1678, he even created a working model powered by a steam boiler and alcohol burner. However, these early designs were impractical and lacked the power and efficiency needed for widespread use.

The Birth of the Steam Car (18th-19th Centuries):

The 18th century saw the development of more functional steam-powered vehicles. In 1769, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot of France is credited with building the first documented self-propelled road vehicle. His steam tricycle could carry up to four passengers and is considered a landmark in automotive history [1]. Throughout the 19th century, steam cars continued to be developed and used, particularly in Europe and the United States. However, they had limitations – they were slow, cumbersome to operate, and required a long time to build up steam pressure.

The Internal Combustion Engine Revolution (19th-20th Centuries):

The invention of the internal combustion engine in the 19th century marked a turning point. While there were earlier attempts, the development of a practical gasoline engine by Karl Benz in 1885 is often considered a pivotal moment [2]. Benz’s three-wheeled Patent Motorwagen is credited as the first gasoline-powered car to be patented and successfully run. Shortly afterward, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach also created a significant contribution with their four-wheeled gasoline car in 1889. These early gasoline cars were still rudimentary, but they offered several advantages over steam cars – they were lighter, started quicker, and had a greater range.

The Rise of the Modern Automobile (20th Century):

The early 20th century saw rapid advancements in car design and manufacturing. Assembly lines pioneered by Henry Ford with the Model T in 1908 made cars more affordable and accessible to the masses. Electric starters, pneumatic tires, and other innovations further enhanced the practicality and appeal of automobiles. Throughout the 20th century, cars continued to evolve, becoming more powerful, comfortable, and safer. New technologies like electronic fuel injection, anti-lock braking systems, and airbags were incorporated, making cars not only more convenient but also safer to operate.

The Future of the Car:

The story of the car is far from over. Today, we are witnessing the rise of electric vehicles, autonomous driving technologies, and a growing focus on sustainability in car design. The future of the car may involve a blend of these advancements, leading to cleaner, more efficient, and perhaps even self-driving vehicles.


The invention of the car is not the work of a single person, but rather the culmination of ideas and innovations by numerous inventors and engineers over centuries. From the early steam carriages to the sophisticated vehicles of today, the car has transformed transportation, revolutionized industries, and shaped the way we live. As technology continues to evolve, the future of the car promises even more exciting possibilities.


Functions of Car Brake and Common Signs of Brake Problems

pressing the brake pedal

The main function of a car brake is to slow down or stop the vehicle when necessary. The brake system works by converting the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into heat energy through the process of friction. This is done by applying pressure to the brake pads or shoes, which then press against the brake rotor or drum to slow down or stop the vehicle.

There are several components that make up the brake system, including the brake pedal, brake booster, brake master cylinder, brake lines, brake calipers, brake pads or shoes, and brake rotors or drums. Each of these components plays a vital role in the function of the brake system.

When you press the brake pedal, it activates the brake booster, which multiplies the force applied to the pedal to create more pressure on the brake system. This pressure is then transferred to the brake master cylinder, which pushes brake fluid through the brake lines and into the brake calipers or wheel cylinders.

The brake calipers or wheel cylinders then use this brake fluid to apply pressure to the brake pads or shoes, which in turn press against the brake rotor or drum to slow down or stop the vehicle.

Signs of Brake Problems

There are several signs that may indicate a brake problem in a vehicle. Some common signs of brake problems include:

  1. Squeaking or grinding noise: If you hear a high-pitched squeaking or grinding noise when you apply the brakes, it may indicate that the brake pads are worn and need to be replaced.
  2. Soft or spongy brake pedal: If the brake pedal feels soft or spongy when you apply pressure, it may indicate that there is air in the brake lines or a problem with the brake master cylinder.
  3. Vibrations: If you feel vibrations or shaking when you apply the brakes, it may indicate that the brake rotors are warped or damaged.
  4. Warning light: If the brake warning light on the dashboard is illuminated, it may indicate a problem with the brake system.
  5. Longer stopping distances: If the vehicle takes longer to come to a stop than usual, it may indicate that the brake pads are worn or that there is a problem with the brake system.

If you experience any of these signs, it is important to have your brakes checked by a qualified mechanic as soon as possible to ensure your safety on the road.

What makes a Car to Rough Idle

Car bonnet being opened

A rough idle in a car can be caused by a variety of issues, some of which include:

Dirty or clogged air filter: If the air filter is dirty or clogged, it can restrict airflow to the engine, resulting in a rough idle.

Faulty spark plugs: Spark plugs that are worn out or fouled can cause the engine to misfire, leading to a rough idle.

Vacuum leaks: Vacuum leaks can allow unmetered air into the engine, causing a rough idle.

Dirty fuel injectors: Dirty fuel injectors can cause a lean fuel mixture, leading to a rough idle.

Faulty sensors: Faulty sensors, such as the Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor or the Oxygen (O2) sensor, can cause incorrect readings and lead to a rough idle.

Electrical issues: Electrical problems such as a weak battery or a failing alternator can cause fluctuations in engine speed, leading to a rough idle.

If you are experiencing a rough idle in your car, it is best to take it to a mechanic to diagnose and fix the issue.

How a car works

A car

The car is a complex machine that is designed to convert fuel into energy that can be used to power its wheels and move it forward.

Here is a simplified overview of how a car works:

Fuel is stored in the gas tank.

The fuel is drawn from the tank by a fuel pump and sent to the engine.

In the engine, the fuel is mixed with air and ignited by a spark, creating an explosion that pushes a piston.

The motion of the piston turns a crankshaft, which converts the up-and-down motion of the piston into rotary motion.

The rotary motion is sent to the transmission, which uses gears to adjust the speed and torque of the wheels.

The power is transferred from the transmission to the drive wheels by a driveshaft and axle.

The wheels spin and move the car forward.

Other systems in the car, such as the braking, steering, and suspension systems, work to control the speed and direction of the car and provide a comfortable and safe ride for the driver and passengers. Additionally, the electrical system provides power to the various components of the car, including the lights, radio, and other accessories. The car’s computer, or engine control module (ECM), monitors and adjusts various systems in the car to optimize performance, fuel efficiency, and emissions.

When and how you know that Your Car needs fixing

Car under repair

In this fast paced modern world, cars are a necessity. The importance of cars for ease of transportation cannot be overemphasized. Cars are also good for pleasure too. However, whether your car is for business or pleasure maintenance is the key. Good maintenance of your car will ensure that you use it for several years and still have good second hand value.

 How and when you know it’s time to fix your car.

Every component of your car is very important to ensure that your driving is very safe and comfortable. Don’t ignore any warning signs your car gives. Below are some warning signs your car can give if it’s about to get a fault and need fixing


 If you notice a leakage of oil or water  under where you park your car you should have it investigated. If it is engine oil it’s probably there is a leakage of oil from your engine. If it’s brake fluid then either there’s a leakage or malfunctioning of your break or clutch. And if it’s a water leakage then check if the radiator is not leaking.

Unpleasant sounds from the wheels

Once you notice any unpleasant sounds coming from the wheels arrangements of your car, then have it checked by a qualified personnel at your earliest convenience


When your car overheats on the highway, then it indicates that something is wrong with the car cooling system, so have the radiator and the cooling system checked by a qualified personnel.

Burning smell of rubber while driving

When driving are you noticed a smell like that of burning rubber then it’s most likely there’s a problem with your clutch, immediately have it checked by qualified personnel

Lights not coming on  or dim

Always check for malfunctioning of the turning/ signal lights, headlights, the car inner lights and so on.

Repair the faulty ones at your earliest convenience.


If white or black smoke is coming out of your car exhaust, don’t take this for granted have the engine checked. This could mean a problem with the engine oil, engine itself or a component of it.

Tire pressure

Make sure your tires are at the correct  and same pressure. If you notice any tire is deflated, have it fixed or you can change to the spare. Don’t drive a car without a spare tire. You will never know when you will need it. Make sure your tires are in good condition, check the wearing indicators of the tire, that way, you will know how long your tires will last or whether they need replacement soon.

Overspeeding and over revolutions

Two important indicators you find in your car are the speedometer and the  engine revolutions indicator. Always subjecting your car to very high speeds such as over all the kilometer per hour and high engine revolutions will make your engine wear out faster/ increase your maintenance costs.

Performance of the brake,  clutch and gears

If you notice reduced performance of the brake, gears and clutch system. You must  immediately have it checked by a qualified personnel.

Indicator lights in your dashboard

If the brake, engine oil, temperature and service engine soon lights come on and doesn’t turn off, immediately and without any form of delay have it checked by a qualified technician.

Regular service every 3 months

Try to take your car for servicing every 3 months. What the mechanic will check and service will include;  the changing of the engine oil, checking of the brake pads, brake fluids,shock absorbers and other springs. That  the horns, doors and  windows are working properly. That the bonnet and boot  are working  properly. In all the mechanic should check that the car is still in fine shape and fix anything that is out of place or faulty.

About the Toyota Yaris

Toyota Yaris is a mini semi compact car sold by Toyota since 1999. Toyota Yaris replaced Toyota tercel Toyota starlet. Toyota Yaris was formerly called. Yaris is also called Vitz, Platz,Belts) in Japan, Vios in Asia region and Echo in Australia and North America.

The name Yaris means charm and beauty. The number of Toyota Yaris models  that have  been sold is  over 8.71 million since 2020.

Toyota Yaris is usually shipped in 3 / 5 door hatchback models, 4-door sedan models, and 2-door coupe models.

The Toyota Yaris is equipped with compact straight four cylinder engine that is best known for its fuel economy. In fact one of its engine models, the 2NZ FE engine won the engine of the year award in 2000.