4 Simple Soap Recipes for you to experiment with at home

Soap making

Transparent apple soap

This is a transparent soap with apple fragrance.

Recipe:

4 ounces clear glycerine soap base

1 tablespoon liquid soap

1 teaspoon liquid glycerine

½ teaspoon of apple fragrance oil

2 drops of red food colour

½ teaspoon of ground cinnamon

Procedure

Melt the soap base ( you can use your microwave to do that).

Add the liquid soap and glycerine and stir the mixture.

Add the apple fragrance oil, red colour and cinnamon and stir well.

Pour the mixture into  moulds and let it harden overnight

After the soap has fully hardened, remove from mould and it is ready to use.

Foaming liquid soap

Recipe

245ml Castile liquid soap base

5ml vitamin E

10 drops of lemon oil

10 drops of Lavender essential oil

Directions

Mix the ingredients thoroughly and use.

Exfoliating cream soap:

Nice soapy and creamy soap that is soothing to the skin.

Ingredients

3.5 ounces of creme soap base

1 teaspoon D- Limonene

1 teaspoon fine pumice

2 teaspoon orange peel granules

5 drops of orange essential oil

Pure distilled water.

Directions

Mix all the ingredients except distilled water in a glass bowl. Use pure distilled water to thin out the mixture into your desired constituency. Store in a glass jar.

Sand soap

A good soap for cleaning oily and greasy stains.

Ingredients

1 pound of glycerine melt and pour soap base.

½ cup of fine sand

2 teaspoons Eucalyptus essential oil

Directions

Melt the soap base

Mix with fine sand and eucalyptus oil

Put into moulds and allowed to set

About soap making (part 1)

soap

Soap is the salt of a fatty acid. This salt is the product of the combination of an acid and alkali and it is different from the type of salt we eat.

The acid used in soap making is known as fatty acid, while the alkali is generally sodium hydroxide or caustic soda. 

Saponification is the process of making soap, when the fatty acid is mixed with the alkali it produces a tablet of salt and glycerine which is the soap.

How soap cleanses

When soap combines with water it acts as a surfactant, The surfactant has water soluble and oil soluble parts. Due to this property, soap molecules can surround grease or dirt particles and bring them into the water to be washed away.

Why you should make your own soap

Glycerine is a bye product of soap making and it’s function is to soothe and clean without irritation.

Commercially made soap are made in a cost effective way, making this type of soaps able to clean but hash on the hand and skin because it lacks glycerine.

Making your own soap helps to regularise the soap making ingredients to your advantage.

Soap making ingredients

Basic materials used for soap making are fat and sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) with the addition of essential oils and fragrances to personalize your soap.

Fat can be animal or  plant fat. Fat of cow, goat, buffalo is ok. Suitable fat from plants include the various types of cooking oil such as 

Olive oil, palm oil, coconut oil, avocado oil, sher butter, sunflower oil etc.

Colouring ingredients include;

Cocoa powder,

Cinnamon,

Bentonite clay

Turmeric

Curry powder

Paprika

Fragrance ingredients include;

Cinnamon

Lavender

Peppermint

Orange

Rosemary

Other ingredients for health benefit includes

Oats

Coffee grounds

Pumice

Olive stone

Apricot stone 

Lavender

Nettle

 and many more.

To add moisturizer to soap you can add glycerine. Some glycerine is already produced in the saponification process.

Beeswax is an ingredient to to harden the soap, salt can also be added to hasten it.

Borax and sugar are added to give the soap bubbles.

Types of soap

Novelty soaps: 

These soaps are made for children. They are mild on the children’s skin.

Perfumed soaps: 

Strong scented soaps

Guest soap:

As the name implies, they are small sized soaps used in hotels, motels, guest houses by guests in the bathroom. They can be taken home by the guests.

Beauty soaps:

These soaps are special soaps that beautify the skin by removing wrinkles, spots, makes the skin clearer and so on.

Medicated soaps:

These soaps are designed to treat all kinds of skin infections, such as acne, pimples, prickly heat, eczema and so on.

Translucent soaps:

These are soaps containing glycerine. These types of soaps are very gentle on the skin.

Transparent soaps:

A special type of soap that feels better against your skin when compared to other soaps.

Liquid soaps

As the name implies, these types of soap come in liquid form. As with solid bar soaps, some are suitable for bathing, others for washing clothes and others for washing dishes.

How Ceramic Cups are Made

Ceramic cups being produced in a factory

Clay is the main ingredient used in the making of different kinds of ceramics including ceramic cups.

Water is added to the clay material to make it workable enough to mould into the required shape of the cup.

The cup 🍵 can be moulded by hand only, hand and spinning wheel or industrially. Industrial moulding gives the best finish followed by the hand and spinning wheel method.

After moulding, the cup is left to dry after which it is engraved, painted/glazed. Glazing is very important, apart from giving it it’s aesthetic look, the cup will  be impervious to water and have a smooth finish. Another method used after drying the cup is to oven dry to remove most of the moisture before paint/glazing.

The final stage is the oven drying of the cup. The cup is subjected to temperatures of over 1200 °C. This process will remove all the moisture inside of the cup and  give the cup it’s characteristic hardness. The heating and then cooling process can take up to half a day.

How Ceramic Floor tiles are made

ceramic floor tiles

The main material used in the production of ceramic tiles is clay. Clay is readily available in different types and in large quantities. Different types of clay and other similar binding materials can be combined in a particular proportion to create ceramic tiles.

The 3 major types of clay available are earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. 

earthenware clay
stoneware clay

The earthenware clay is red in colour while the stoneware and porcelain are classified as white clay. All the 3 above mentioned types of clay are suitable for making ceramic floor and wall tiles.

The process of making ceramic tiles industrially will be discussed under the following stages.

Grinding the raw material

Moulding

Initial heating

Painting/ glazing

Final heating

Making of ceramic floor tiles in a factory

Grinding the raw material

clay and other binding and waterproofing substances are grinded in required proportions to smooth power. This is done using an industrial grinder.

Moulding 

To the powder mixture a very little amount of water is added and thoroughly mixed to make it plastic. The powdery mixture is then placed into a mould and compressed under very high pressure and temperature to form a flat solid mass that has been shaped into the required time size.

Initial heating 

Before the tiles can be glazed it needs most of the moisture to be taken out. This can be done by heating the tiles in an oven. The tiles are heated up to a temperature of over 900°C and then cooled. 

Painting/glazing

Next the tiles are painted and or glazed.

Painting gives the tiles its waterproofing properties and aesthetic look. Glazing does similar work in addition to design and engravings.

Final Heating 

After the tiles have been given its waterproof and aesthetic look. It is heated in an oven for the final time to dry up all the moisture and make the tiles stronger in the process. Temperatures in the oven are above 1000°C.The heating process can last for several hours, after which it is allowed to cool completely. After this final process, the ceramic tiles are ready for packaging and distribution to sale outlets.

How Pencils are made

Pencil making process

The writing material inside of a pencil is known as lead. This lead is made from graphite and clay. The graphite and clay are mixed together in the required proportions in the presence of water. The workable lead is then moulded into long thin cylindrical shapes. These thin leads are then dried and fired to reach the required toughness and strength required for writing without breaking.

Typical lead of a pencil is gray to black in colour. Coloured leads can be made by mixing the graphite, clay, and colour pigments together during the lead making process.

After the leads have been prepared, the next thing is to enclose them inside the specially prepared wooden material.The leads are sandwiched between 2 sets of grooved flat and thin woods.

Grooves are cut into a long flat thin wood that can take up to 10 pencils. (10  grooves). Next glue is applied to the surface of the groves. Then the pencil leads are inserted into the grooves. Similarly a long flat thin wood similar to the bottom wood is then used to cover the leads. The leads are sandwiched between the upper and lower wood casings. Pressure is then applied to ensure that the upper and lower wood casings are  fused together holding the sandwiched leads in place.

The wooden sandwich leads are then fed through a cutter which cuts and separates into single pencil units. 

The pencils are then engraved, coloured, and eraser inserted at their back end before packaging and distribution to sale outlets.

How glass is made

glass making process

Glass is made up of sand, soda ash and limestone. These constituent materials are mixed together in required proportions and heated up to about 1260°C ( 2300°F). The mixture is molten at the above named temperature. The molten mixture is then placed into mould then pressed and or blown as required to take the shape of the mould.

The hot glass is then removed from the mould and polished to give a smoother and finer finish. Next the glass is then tempered by letting it pass through heat to give it more toughness. Finally the glass is allowed to cool down and packaged.

One of the reasons why glass is cheap is because the raw materials are readily available and broken glasses can be recycled.