How to calculate how much fuel your car consumes per kilometer

To know how much fuel your car consumes per kilometer, follow these steps.

1. Keep driving your car until the fuel level reaches reserve or fuel warning light starts blinking.

2 . Immediately get to the nearest filling station and fill up your car fuel tank. Note the amount of fuel (in liters) that was required to fill your tank from the fuel dispensing machine.

3. On your car dashboard set trip distance to zero from the trip meter, or write down the distance (in Km) covered by your car up to the point when you filled your fuel tank, from the odometer

4. Drive your car until fuel reaches reserve again.

5. At that point read the amount of distance covered by your car from the trip meter on your dashboard. Alternatively, read distance covered by car up to that point from the odometer and deduct from distance covered when you filled up tank at filling station.

6. Next divide the number of liters consumed (what was recorded at the filling station) by amount of distance covered.

For example, let’s say the amount of liters that filled up your car tank at the filling station was 35 liters, and at the time fuel depleted to reserve, you had covered a distance of 250Km driving, then amount of fuel consumed per kilometer can be calculated as follows;

35liters/250Km = 0.14liters/ Km

Or ,the distance covered per liter is 250km/35liters = 7.142Km per liter

How to Update PS4 System Software to latest version from USB Flash Drive.

Update PS4 from USB flash

To update PS4 system software to latest version via USB flash drive,go to Google search, and type; “PlayStation software update”.

On the search results, click on any PS4 system software update link that emanates from www.playstation.com. In this case, search result 1 will suffice.

PS4 system software search

On the webpage, locate the latest PS4 system software update link, and download.

Locate the downloaded file, and rename to; PS4UPDATE.PUP, if necessary.

Insert USB flash drive into your laptop or desktop.

Open the flash drive and in it, create a folder named; PS4.

Next open this newly created PS4 folder, and inside it create another folder named; UPDATE.

Locate the downloaded PS4UPDATE.PUP file and place it inside the newly created UPDATE folder.

Now inside the flash drive we have the PS4 folder, inside the PS4 folder we have the, UPDATE folder and inside the update folder we have the PS4UPDATE.PUP file.

This is how the update file should be set up inside the flash drive for the console to recognize it.

Now insert the flash drive into your PS4 console and switch it on.

Log into your account.

Go to settings, then, system software update.

Your console automatically detects update software including the version it will be updating to, on USB flash drive,

 click NEXT

 then Click UPDATE and the wait for your console’s system software to update,

your console will restart during the update process.

After update is complete, you can confirm by going to SETTINGS, SYSTEM, SYSTEM INFROMATION. There you will see the new version it has updated to.

To watch video of the process, Click this link to video on my YouTube channel.

Load Combinations in Reinforced Concrete Design.

Load combination.

The load combination for reinforced concrete design is 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk where Gk and Qk represent dead and imposed loads respectively. 1.4 and 1.6 is the factor of safety for dead and 1.6 is the factor of safety for imposed loads.

Other local combinations include; 1.2 Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk where Wk represents wind load.

For full information on load combinations see table 2.1 page 9 of BS 8110 part 1, 1997.

In reality however, various load combinations of dead, imposed and wind loads should be considered. This is to ensure that the structure is designed for the worst possible case.

Load cases:

While it is ok to load all parts of the structure using 1.4Gk + 1.6Q, it is also to be appreciated that theoretically, these loads can vary i.e from 1.0 Gk to 1.4 Gk and 0.0 Qk to 1.6 Qk, in the light of these, various load cases need to be considered to achieve an accurate design.

For example, assuming we are working on a 3 span beam with Gk of 25kN/m and Qk of 10kN/m. It is good practice to consider the following load cases;

Case 1: loaded even spans with 1.4Gk + 1.6Qand odd spans with 1.0Gk.

Even Span Loaded 1
even span loaded 2

Case 2: loaded odd spans with 1.4Gk + 1.6Qand even spans with 1.0Gk.

odd spans loaded 1
odd spans loaded 2

Case 3: All spans with 1.4Gk + 1.6Q 

All spans loaded 1
All spans loaded 2

Each load case is analyzed for bending moments and shear forces.

Bending moment diagrams for each load case. (all values in kNm);

CASE 1. (Even spans loaded):

Moment diagram for even span loaded

CASE 2. (Odd spans loaded):

moment diagram for odd spans loaded

CASE 3. (All spans loaded)

moment diagram for all spans loaded

The results of load cases are then compared. So for any beam span, the highest value of bending moment and shear forces of the 3 load cases is taken for design.

Final Result.

Final result

Reference.

Mosley & Bungey, Reinforced concrete design. 5th Ed. Page 30.

BS 8110 part 1, 1997.