How Ceramic Floor tiles are made

ceramic floor tiles

The main material used in the production of ceramic tiles is clay. Clay is readily available in different types and in large quantities. Different types of clay and other similar binding materials can be combined in a particular proportion to create ceramic tiles.

The 3 major types of clay available are earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. 

earthenware clay
stoneware clay

The earthenware clay is red in colour while the stoneware and porcelain are classified as white clay. All the 3 above mentioned types of clay are suitable for making ceramic floor and wall tiles.

The process of making ceramic tiles industrially will be discussed under the following stages.

Grinding the raw material


Initial heating

Painting/ glazing

Final heating

Making of ceramic floor tiles in a factory

Grinding the raw material

clay and other binding and waterproofing substances are grinded in required proportions to smooth power. This is done using an industrial grinder.


To the powder mixture a very little amount of water is added and thoroughly mixed to make it plastic. The powdery mixture is then placed into a mould and compressed under very high pressure and temperature to form a flat solid mass that has been shaped into the required time size.

Initial heating 

Before the tiles can be glazed it needs most of the moisture to be taken out. This can be done by heating the tiles in an oven. The tiles are heated up to a temperature of over 900°C and then cooled. 


Next the tiles are painted and or glazed.

Painting gives the tiles its waterproofing properties and aesthetic look. Glazing does similar work in addition to design and engravings.

Final Heating 

After the tiles have been given its waterproof and aesthetic look. It is heated in an oven for the final time to dry up all the moisture and make the tiles stronger in the process. Temperatures in the oven are above 1000°C.The heating process can last for several hours, after which it is allowed to cool completely. After this final process, the ceramic tiles are ready for packaging and distribution to sale outlets.

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