Glass is made up of sand, soda ash and limestone. These constituent materials are mixed together in required proportions and heated up to about 1260°C ( 2300°F). The mixture is molten at the above named temperature. The molten mixture is then placed into mould then pressed and or blown as required to take the shape of the mould.
The hot glass is then removed from the mould and polished to give a smoother and finer finish. Next the glass is then tempered by letting it pass through heat to give it more toughness. Finally the glass is allowed to cool down and packaged.
One of the reasons why glass is cheap is because the raw materials are readily available and broken glasses can be recycled.