Generally all types of glass is produced by mixing silica with other additives such as sodium potassium carbonate, lime, manganese oxide and subjecting the mixture to very high heat. Silica is the main constituent of glass but to make it durable, lime or lead oxide is added. Glass items are manufactured by blowing, flat drawing, pressing and rolling.
Properties of Glass.
Glass is strong and durable, inert to the atmosphere, good electrical insulator, absorbs, reflects or transmits light, available in many colours and easy to clean.
Types of glass and their use.
Potash Lime Glass:
Mainly a mixture of potassium silicate and calcium silicate. Also known as hard glass. It is used in the manufacture of glass articles that have to withstand high temperatures.
It is basically a mixture of sodium silicate, calcium silicate and iron silicate. It is brown, green or yellow in colour. Used mainly in the manufacture of bottles.
Soda Lime Glass:
Consists of sodium silicate and calcium silicate. It is fusible at low temperature and this property makes it easy to form to required shape. It is used in the production of items such as laboratory tubes and window panes.
Potash Lead Glass:
Consists mainly of potassium silicate and lead silicate. It has bright lustre and great refractive power. Used in the manufacture of artificial gems, electrical bulbs, lenses, prisms and so on.
This type of glass is produced by altering the basic ingredients and adding a few more. Examples of special glasses includes; Fibre glass, Foam glass, Bullet proof glass, Structural glass, Wired glass, Ultraviolet ray glass, Perforated glass and so on