Stones are naturally available building materials that have been used since early civilization. Type of stones used in civil/ building construction works are igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic in origin. Stones required for building/civil engineering construction must be strong, durable, hard, tough, and cost effective.
Uses of stones in building/civil engineering construction
- For construction of foundations, walls, columns and arches
- For flooring and damp proof courses
- Facework of buildings, paving of roads and base courses
- Abutment and bridges, dams and retaining walls
- Common building stones
The following are some commonly used building stones
An igneous rock. Colour varies from dark grey to black. Used in road construction and as aggregates for making concrete.
An igneous rock. Crystalline in structure. Particles sizes ranges from fine to coarse grained. They are used for dams, river walls and bridge piers. Also used as coarse aggregates in concrete.
Sand-stones are stratified rocks consisting of quartz and feldspar. They come in many colours including white, grey, red, yellow, brown and dark grey. Sandstone is not as strong as granite and balsalt. They are used for masonry work, dams, bridge piers and river walls.
Slates are metamorphic rocks composed of quarz, mica and clay. Their colour varies from dark grey to black. They are used for roofing tiles, pavements etc.
This is also a type of metamorphic rock with porous structure. Its colour varies, i.e. brown, red, yellow, grey etc. laterite is commonly used as filling material.
Another type of metamorphic rock. Marble is available in different colours such as pink and white. Used for facing and ornamental works.